Biology Chapter 1 The Science of Biology. Section 1 What Science is and is not. The goal of science is to investigate and understand nature, to explain events in nature and to use those explanations to make useful predictions.
The goal of science is to investigate and understand nature, to explain events in nature and to use those explanations to make useful predictions.
Science is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
The word Science also refers to the body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using this process.
Science starts with observation.
Observation involves using one or more of the senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste to gather information.
The information gathered from observations is called evidence, or Data.
Observations can be classified into two types, Quantitative and Qualitative.
Quantitative Observations involve numbers.
An example of quantitative observation is “There are 4 sharks in the water!”
Qualitative Observations involve characteristics that cannot be easily measured or counted, such as color or texture.
A qualitative observation could be “That Great White shark has very rough skin!”
An observation alone has little meaning in science, because the goal is to understand what was observed.
An Inference is a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience.
Example: researchers might sample water from a reservoir, if samples collected from different parts of the reservoir are all clean enough to drink, the researchers may Infer that all the water in the reservoir is safe to drink.
A Hypothesis is a possible explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question.
In everyday settings, a hypothesis can be stated about any topic or idea.
In science, a hypothesis is useful only if it can be tested.
Scientific hypotheses may be developed and tested in different ways.
Hypotheses may arise from prior knowledge, logical inferences, or imaginative guesses.
The testing may sometimes be done by making further observations or through careful questioning.
The tests of a hypothesis may support it, or suggest that the hypothesis is partly true but needs to be revised.
No matter what the outcome, a tested hypothesis has value in science because it helps researchers advance scientific knowledge.
Define Quantitative Observation
Define Qualitative Observation
What is the goal of science and why?
In everyday settings:
A hypothesis may arise from:
The tests of a hypothesis may:
The word science refers to:
Scientists are persuaded by logical arguments that are supported by evidence.
Despite recognizing the power of science, scientists know that science has definite limits.
Science cannot help you decide whether a painting is beautiful or cheating on a test is wrong.
Today, scientists contribute information to discussions about health and disease, and about the relationship between human beings and the rest of the living world.
Figures: 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, and 1-6.