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The Effects of Social Presence and Modeling on Gestures. Patricia Mullings-Thomas, Christy E. O’Brien, Lillan Schatvet, Sarah Shattuck and Yifat Tamir Mount Holyoke College.

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the effects of social presence and modeling on gestures

The Effects of Social Presence and Modeling on Gestures

Patricia Mullings-Thomas, Christy E. O’Brien,

Lillan Schatvet, Sarah Shattuck and Yifat Tamir

Mount Holyoke College

slide2

Introduction-How does an audience affect how we move? -Does our awareness of how many people are watching cause us to modify our gesture usage? -Does the amount that people around us gesture in turn affect our own gestures?

previous research
Previous Research

-Social presence

-Tends to increase the number of gestures (Frielund, 1991; Lee & Wagner, 2002).

-Tends to make people internalize embarrassment, self consciousness & social anxiety (Patterson,1997; Osamu, 1996)

-Modeling

-People tend to mimic the behavior of those around them

(Chartrand & Bargh, 1999)

-Aids in communicating empathy & mutual fondness between

communicators (Hess, Philippot, & Blairy, 1999)

hypothesis
Hypothesis
  • Participants who perform in the high social presence condition will make more gestures, than participants in the low social presence condition
    • those aware of audience size tend to internalize embarrassment, self-consciousness and social anxiety
  • Participants in the modeling condition will gesture more than participants in the non-modeling condition
    • people will mimic modeled gestures
variables
Variables

IV #1=social presence IV #2=modeling

  • high social presence (HSP) - Modeling (M)
  • low social presence (LSP) - Non-modeling (NM)

DV=number of gestures

method
Participants

85 traditional and non-traditional female students taking classes at Mount Holyoke

21 participants randomly assigned to each of 3 conditions and 22 in one

Materials

measuring tape

masking tape

stopwatch

script

one table

consent form

debriefing statement

Method
procedure
Procedure
  • 2 (social presence: HSP, LSP) X 2 (modeling: M, NM)
    • 2 Conditions for Social Presence
      • High social presence (3 researchers)
      • Low social presence (2 researchers - 1 known)
    • 2 Conditions for Modeling
      • Modeling
      • Non-modeling
  • Up to one minute to think of a fictional story
  • One minute to tell the fictional story
  • Observed and tallied number of gestures
  • Debriefed participants (revealed deception)

Method cont’d

results
Results
  • Hypothesis

-Social Presence (IV #1) -Modeling (IV #2)

-HSP => more gestures -M=> more gestures

-LSP => less gestures -NM=> less gestures

  • Type of Analysis = 2 X 2 Factorial ANOVA for Independent Groups
slide9

Main Effects & Interaction

  • Main Effect for Social Presence - Not significant
    • - F(1,81)=1.67, MSE=122.24, p>.05
  • Main Effect for Modeling - Marginally significant
    • - More gestures in Modeling Condition
  • - F(1,81)=3.187, MSE=122.24, p<.10
  • Interaction for social presence X modeling - Not significant
  • - F(1,81)=1.28, MSE=122.24, p>.05

Results cont’d

discussion
Discussion
  • Data not statistically significant (marginally significant main effect for modeling)
  • Participants who performed in the HSP condition made no more gestures than those in the LSP condition.
    • Our study did not support previous research indicating that heightened social presence increased the number of gestures (Frielund, 1991; Lee & Wagner, 2002).
  • Participants who performed in the modeling condition made slightly more gestures than those in the non-modeling condition.
    • This trend supported previous research (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999).
implications
Implications
  • Raise awareness of excessive use of gestures
    • Distracting
  • Positive usage of gestures
    • Public speaking, courtroom settings, job or college interviews
    • Increase clarity, confidence and articulation
    • Raise awareness of the importance of modeling as a teaching tool for public speaking and self-presentation

Discussion cont’d