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Role of Information. Farrokh Alemi, Ph.D. Torturing Data Until They Confess. I only have one question. What is 1 plus 1?. Mathematician: “For sure 2”. Torturing Data Until They Confess. I only have one question. What is 1 plus 1?. Statistician: “Over long samples the average is 1.99”.

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role of information

Role of Information

Farrokh Alemi, Ph.D.

torturing data until they confess
Torturing Data Until They Confess

I only have one question. What is 1 plus 1?

Mathematician: “For sure 2”

torturing data until they confess3
Torturing Data Until They Confess

I only have one question. What is 1 plus 1?

Statistician: “Over long samples the average is 1.99”

torturing data until they confess4
Torturing Data Until They Confess

I only have one question. What is 1 plus 1?

System Analyst: “What do you want it to be?”

what is information
What is Information?
  • “..facts to be used as a basis of discussion or deciding something”
  • Data alone represent observations
  • Data is not always correct and it can be distorted
  • Information occurs as a result of processing the data
other definitions
Other Definitions
  • What is known beyond random chance predictions
  • When data helps reduce available alternatives
  • When data is processed to become meaningful for the given situation
other definitions7
Other Definitions
  • What is known beyond random chance predictions
  • When data helps reduce available alternatives
  • When data is processed to become meaningful for the given situation

Reduced Alternatives

travels of data
Acquisition of data.

Classification of data.

Storage of data.

Retrieval of data.

Editing of data.

Verification and quality control of process that produced the data.

Aggregation of data.

Hypothesis generation

Description of data

Test of analysis assumptions

Analysis

Extrapolation of implications of findings

Presentation of data

Distribution of reports

Evaluation of effectiveness of reports

Travels of Data
travels of data9
Acquisition of data.

Classification of data.

Storage of data.

Retrieval of data.

Editing of data.

Verification and quality control of process that produced the data.

Aggregation of data.

Hypothesis generation

Description of data

Test of analysis assumptions

Analysis

Extrapolation of implications of findings

Presentation of data

Distribution of reports

Evaluation of effectiveness of reports

Travels of Data

Discarding Information & Life After Use

information systems
Information Systems
  • Hardware, software, People
  • Information processing is the essential element of management
medical informatics
Medical Informatics
  • The study and use of computers and information in health care
  • Association of American Medical Colleges

“Medical informatics is a developing body of knowledge and a set of techniques concerning the organizational management of information in support of medical research, education, and patient care…combines medical science with several technologies and disciplines in computer sciences and provides methodologies by which these can contribute to better medical care”

investment in it
Investment in IT
  • Since 1965, investment in IT has tripled in the US
  • Use of IT has changed how we work and now information workers are more common
investment in it13
Investment in IT
  • Some costs have gone down
    • Processing costs
    • Storage costs
    • Transmission costs
    • Cost of input/output devices
    • Marketing costs
how costs have dropped
How Costs Have Dropped?
  • 1950s processing costs drops
  • 1960s storage costs drops
  • 1970s transmission costs drops
  • 1980s input/output costs drops
  • 1990s marketing costs drops
  • 2000s broadband and wireless
healthcare it investment
Healthcare IT Investment
  • Health care expenditures account for 1/7 of the US economy
  • IT expenditures by industry
    • Transportation 14%
    • Banking 6%
    • Healthcare 2%
information seeking behavior
Information Seeking Behavior
  • A critical behavior that occurs continuously
  • Information search is any purposeful activity leading to collecting data and processing it to becomeinformation
  • Organizations control information
    • Sharing info leads to improved coordination
    • Need to know
exercise in detection of patterns
Exercise in Detection of Patterns
  • Search for information starts with assumptions
  • What is the next number if the first few are: 1, 5, 10, ?
exercise in detection of patterns18
Exercise in Detection of Patterns
  • Search for information starts with assumptions
  • What is the next number if the first few are: 1, 5, 10, 17, ?
exercise in detection of patterns19
Exercise in Detection of Patterns
  • Search for information starts with assumptions
  • What is the next number if the first two are: 1, 5, 10, ?

f(x) = X2 + 1

barriers to information seeking
Time

Decision making characteristics

Structural

Cultural

Organizational policies and procedures

Individual

Technical issues

Cost of search

“Not part of my job”

Fear of unknown

Barriers to Information Seeking
distortion of information
Distortion of Information
  • Plunging in before full examination
  • Solving wrong problems
  • Narrow view
  • Overconfidence
  • Shortsighted shortcuts
  • Shooting from the hip, without aids
  • Equating popularity with accuracy
  • Fooling yourself
  • Not keeping track

Decision Traps: Ten Barriers to Brilliant Decision-making and how to Overcome Them

by J. Edward Russo, Paul J. H. Schoemaker - 1989 - 280 pages

why is there so much ignorance in organized work
Why Is There So Much Ignorance in Organized Work? 
  • Managers control information release
  • Ignorance is bliss
  • Ignorance is productive
    • Need to know
  • Organization structures are unproductive
    • Informal organization structures are key to success
how should information systems help clinicians
How Should Information Systems Help Clinicians?
  • Frame the problem better
  • Gather information more intelligently
  • Be aware of the missing data
  • Use systematic processes to come to conclusions
  • Seek and learn from feedback by keeping track of success and failures
slide24
Take Home Lessons?
  • Difference between data, information and search
  • Cost structure of information technology
  • Employees may distort information and face barriers to information search
  • Organization structures influence information processing
  • Tools to assess informal information structures
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