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RiSE: First Steps up the Wall. Center for the Foundation of Robotics. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), March 3-12, 2005. Clark Haynes and Sarjoun Skaff March 22, 2005. Wall Climbing Challenges. Minimally Invasive. Multiple Surfaces. Dynamic Climbing. Low Power. Discreet.

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rise first steps up the wall
RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

Center for the Foundation of Robotics

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), March 3-12, 2005

Clark Haynes and Sarjoun Skaff

March 22, 2005

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

wall climbing challenges
Wall Climbing Challenges

Minimally

Invasive

Multiple Surfaces

Dynamic Climbing

Low Power

Discreet

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

biologically inspired answer
Biologically Inspired Answer
  • Collection of feet
  • Sticky for smooth surfaces
  • Clawed for rough surfaces
  • Six leg
  • Actuated motion
  • Passive compliance

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

slide5
RiSE
  • Robot in Scansorial Environments
  • First prototype to climb hard and
  • soft surfaces
  • Develop intuition to improve
  • performance

Dactyl on carpet

Sticky foot on Plexiglass

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

outline
Outline
  • System Description

Field Trip

Climbing Surfaces

Behavior Generation

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

mechanical platform
Mechanical Platform

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

mechanical platform1
Mechanical Platform

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

climbing carpet at 90
Climbing Carpet at 90°

Feet Type

Dactyl

Gait Type

Tripod

Challenge

Difficult Detachment

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

climbing cork at 90
Climbing Cork at 90°

Feet Type

Spiny

Gait Type

Tripod

  • Challenges
  • Fragile material  Careful attachment
  • Failed attachment  Immediate fall
  • Attachmentsensitive to spine sharpness

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

climbing plexiglass at 55
Climbing PlexiGlass at 55°

Feet Type

Lamellarized Polyurethane

Gait Type

Tetrapod

  • Challenges
  • Large Feet  High C.O.G.
  • Foot contact area depends on weight distribution
  • Vibrations limits foot contact area

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

walking
Walking

Feet Type

Rubber

Gait Type

Tripod

  • Challenges
  • Inadequate passive compliance
  • Small gear ratio  Low speed

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

gait design
Gait Design

0

β = FKin(Θ)

0

1

  • 1st DOF: 4-bar kinematics, “Beta Curve”
  • 2nd DOF: Wing joint
  • Beta x Wing  2D Manifold

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

geometric considerations
Geometric Considerations

Plexiglass

Walking

  • Beta Curve chosen to perform both running and climbing
  • Gaits are piecewise linear trajectories upon 2D Manifold
  • 4 components to a generic climbing gait:
    • “Attachment”, “Stance”, “Detachment”, “Flight”

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

trajectory variations
Trajectory Variations

Plexiglass

Carpet

Cork

  • Surface properties dictate climbing trajectories
  • Pull-in forces, attachment, detachment vary

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

fore aft differentiation
Fore-Aft Differentiation

Carpet Leg 1

Carpet Leg 3

Push-Pull relationship between back and front legs helps to prevent pitchback of robot

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

forward vs backward gaits
Forward vs. Backward Gaits

Carpet Forward

Carpet Backward

  • Running gait in reverse doesn’t work!
  • Attachment requires pull-in, detachment needs straight
  • exit from surface

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

leg phasing and duty factors
Leg Phasing and Duty Factors

Tripod

Tetrapod

Pentapod

Rippled Tripod

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

carpet mobility
Carpet Mobility

Challenge:

  • Maneuver robot through obstacle course on carpeted surface
  • Turning with claws attached to wall
  • Forward vs. Backward gaits
  • Tripod vs. Pentapod for speed, stability

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

tripod turning
Tripod Turning

Tripod 1

Tripod 2

50%

50%

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

tripod turning1
Tripod Turning

Tripod 1a

Tripod 1b

Tripod 2

25%

25%

50%

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

ripple tetrapod turning
Ripple/Tetrapod Turning

Set 1

Set 2

Set 3

33%

33%

33%

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

transitions related gaits
Transitions - Related Gaits

Forward Tripod

Backward Tripod

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

transitions unrelated gaits
Transitions – Unrelated Gaits

Tripod

Pentapod

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

swri test facility
SwRI Test Facility

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

carpet mobility1
Carpet Mobility

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

hybrid foot configuration
Hybrid Foot Configuration

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

tree climbing
Tree Climbing

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

clinging to surfaces
Clinging to Surfaces

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

on site foot development
On-site Foot Development

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

brick
Brick

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

walking1
Walking

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

lessons learned
Lessons Learned
  • PlexiGlass
  • Adhesion deteriorates with dirt
  •  Climbing 0.5m is different from climbing 3m
  • Foot morphology
    • Large feet  More adhesion
    • Small Feet  C.O.G closer to surface  Steeper climbs
  • Cork
  • Fragile surfaces  Smooth attachment
  • Re-Attach to avoid fall  Detect attachment failure
  • Carpet
  • - Difficult detachment  Detect detachment failure, Microspines

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

looking ahead
Looking Ahead
  • - Drop the gears
  • Actuate the tail
  • Climb faster
  • Climb outdoor surfaces
  • Multi-purpose feet
  • Horizontal ↔ Vertical
  • Add Feedback

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

slide35

Credits

Lewis & Clark

K. Autumn M. Buehler M. Cutkosky R. FearingR. J. Full D. E. Koditschek A. A. RizziClark HaynesSarjoun SkaffUluç Saranli

Boston Dynamics

Stanford

UC Berkeley

UC Berkeley

U Penn

Carnegie Mellon

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall

slide37

Surface Loads

FT

FN

L

MT

MN

AT

AN

Mg

Mg

TN

D

Normal Loading

Tangential Loading

Assume

Assume equal weight distribution

Tangential Force

Normal Force

  • Tangential Force Max
  • Fully Attached
  • Partially Attached
  • Normal Force Max
  • Fully Attached
  • Partially Attached

RiSE: First Steps up the Wall