REGULATORY ASPECTS OF NPP SAFETY. International Conference on Strengthening of Nuclear Safety in Eastern Europe Vienna, June 1999. Ján Š t u l l e r, Petr B r a n d e j s, Alexander M i a s n i k o v, Miroslav Š v á b State Office for Nuclear Safety Czech Republic.
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International Conference on Strengthening of Nuclear Safety in Eastern Europe
Vienna, June 1999
Ján Š t u l l e r, Petr B r a n d e j s, Alexander M i a s n i k o v, Miroslav Š v á b
State Office for Nuclear Safety
(the Construction Act)
Specific regulations issued:
Other nuclear safety related regulations:
First nuclear safety specific Act:
The Act No. 28/1984 Coll., on State Supervision of Nuclear Safety at Nuclear Installations wasissued in 1984. This Act established the body which exercised the state supervision over nuclear safety independently on manufacturers and operators of nuclear installations. The Act established for the first time that the responsibility for nuclear safety lied with the Investor, or when in operation the Operator ( Responsible Organization ) of the nuclear installation.
SELECTED LAWS RELATED TO THE SUJB ACTIVITIES:
1. No.18/1997 on Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Ionizing Radiation,
2. No.2/1969 on the Duties of Ministries and Other Central Authorities,
3. No.71/1967 on Administrative Proceedings,
4. No.50/1976 on Land Planning and Construction Regulations (the Construction Act),
5. No.552/1991 on State Inspection and Monitoring,
6. No.111/1994 on Road Transport.
( Atomic Act )
The Act entrusted execution of the state administration and state supervision over peacefulutilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation to the SÚJB and newly established the province of its authority.The Act was developed with the objective to re-codify peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation and to cover more adequately such issues as radioactive waste management, liability for nuclear damage and emergency planning .
- condition of peaceful use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation, conditions of performance of activities related to nuclear energy utilization and activities resulting in radiation exposures,
- requirements for ensuring civil liability in case of a nuclear damage,
- conditions for ensuring safe disposal of radioactive waste,
- requirements related to the state administration and supervision over nuclear energy utilization, over activities resulting in radiation exposure and over nuclear items
- The AtomicAct transferred intothe Czech legal system the Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Joint Protocol related to the Application of the Vienna and Paris Conventions, to which the Czech Republic had acceded. The gap in the legal system, which had been discouraging foreign organizations to be active on the market within the Czech nuclear program, was adequately closed.
- The Atomic Act authorizes the SÚJB to issue Act related regulations.
- Transportation and Shipment of Specified Nuclear Materials and Specified Radionuclide Sources,
- Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities and their Classification,
- Radiation Protection Requirements,
- Quality Assurance,
- Criteria for Siting of Nuclear Facilities,
- Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Assurance during Commissioning and Operation of nuclear Facilities,
- Nuclear Safety Assurance in the Process of Nuclear Installations Designing, Licensing and Construction
Examples of duties and responsibilities of the SÚJB:
- to carry out State supervision over nuclear safety, nuclear items, physical protection, radiation protection and emergency preparedness on the premises of nuclear installations or workplaces with an ionizing radiation source,
- to issue licenses to perform practices governed by the Act and to issue type-approvals for packaging assemblies for transport and storage of nuclear materials and radionuclide source
- to monitor, assess and regulate the radiation exposure of individuals (professionals and public),
- to issue authorizations for selected personnel to perform safety related activities,
- to approve documentation, programmes, Limits and Conditions, concepts of physical protection, emergency rules and on-site emergency plans and their modifications,
- to establish emergency planning zones and to define areas of workplace with an ionizing radiation source
- to carry out the State system of accounting and control of nuclear materials,
- to approve the classification of nuclear installations or their components and nuclear materials into appropriate physical protection categories,
- to inspect the adherence to the Atomic Act,
- to monitor results in safety related R&D area and follow modern trends of practices, and in this respect to coordinate research activities,
- to provide information to municipalities and District Authorities concerning radioactive waste management within their territory of administration,
- to provide the public with adequate information concerning the results of SUJB activities, unless they are subject to the State, professional or commercial secrecy, and once a year to publish a report on SUJB activities and submit it to the Government of the Czech Republic and to the public
inspection instruments include among others the right to:
- enter at any time facilities, installations, operation areas, territories and other workplaces of inspected persons where activities related to nuclear energy utilization or practices resulting in exposure are being carried out,
- check the compliance with requirements and conditions relate to nuclear safety, radiation protection, PP or SGs and make measurements or take samples at the premises of inspected persons,
( inspections instruments )
- demand evidence of fulfillment of all safety relevant obligations,
- verifyprofessional competence and special professional competence,
- participate in investigations of events important for nuclear safety, radiation protection, physical protection and emergency preparedness, including unauthorized handling of nuclear items or ionizing radiation sources,
enforcement instruments include the rights of any inspector to:
- require the inspected person to undertake remedial measures within a set of time,
- bind the inspected person to perform technical inspections, review or tests necessary for verification of nuclear safety,
- withdraw the special professional competence authorization ( control room staff licencies ),
- propose a penalty ( fine ) be imposed
For a violance of a legal obligation determined in the Atomic Act , the SÚJB imposes penalties, up to the amount of:
- CZK 100 million to those who violate the prohibition of nuclear energy utilization for other than peaceful purposes,
- CZK 10 million to a licensee, violating the prohibition of an import of radioactive wastes,
- CZK 200 thousands to employees of an inspected person for a distortion or hiding facts important for the inspection performance.
( Enforcement instruments )
- The SÚJB is authorized in case there is a danger of delay or a occurrence of undesirable situations with an impact on nuclear safety, radiation protection, physical protection or emergency preparedness, to issue a provisional measure imposing on the inspected person the obligation to reduce the power output or suspendoperation of the nuclear installation, to prohibit the handling of nuclear items, ionizing radiation sources or radioactive waste , or to impose on the inspected person the obligation to suffer that this handling is performed by another person on the expenses of the inspected person.
* Activity of Advisory groups is not regulated by the law,
they undoubtedly became a significant advisory body for
important issues of nuclear safety and radiation protection.
- routine inspections - planned specialized inspections - ad-hoc inspections as a response to certain inadvertent
coverat nuclear power plant all regular activities of the licensee especially with respect to the observance of Limits and Conditions. These inspections are planned and carried out as regular daily observations by SÚJB site inspectors . These inspection activities are documented monthly in protocols.
- performed in accordance with SÚJB inspection plan (prepared for 6 month period)
- inspection plan is based on: - results of inspections performed during past period
- operational schedule of Dukovany NPP
- results of independent safety review
- conclusions of the SÚJB evaluation effort
- Usually carried by a team, composed of inspectors from
the headquarters in Prague together with site inspectors of
carried out to examine events and failures having impact on nuclear safety, as well as to clarify serious findings of the routine or planned inspections. Ad-hoc inspections are carried out by site inspectors or by inspectors from the headquarters in Prague as needed.
- Inspection Protocol every inspection has to be documented by a protocol, which is an official document prepared by inspector and signed by both sides - representatives of inspected organization and attending inspectors. The protocol describes inspection in details (subject, programme, findings, required relevant remedies) and reflects results of observation
- Inspection Report
inspection report is an internaldocument of the SÚJB which provides additional detailed comments and explanations related to findings written down in protocol
There are two general levels of evaluation of inspection activities : - Inspection Evaluation Board (Committee) level - SUJB Board of Managers level
- Board is group of SÚJB managers and specialist established to review and assess inspection activities
- Board has regular meetings once a month
- Board determines: - necessity of immediate SUJB actions
- changes in the Inspection plan
- classification of particular inspection into Functional Areas