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Protection: A Theoretical View . Lt Col (retd) Jim Storr PhD. Introduction. Doctrine? . ‘ Command’ is defined as ' … the direction, coordination and control of military forces.'

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protection a theoretical view
Protection: A Theoretical View

Lt Col (retd) Jim Storr PhD

doctrine
Doctrine?

‘Command’ is defined as ' … the direction, coordination and control of military forces.'

‘Control’ is ‘the process by which a commander … organises, directs and coordinates the activities of the forces allocated to him…'

So Command = direction + coordination + control;

and Control = organisation + direction + coordination

Thus Command + = direction + coordination + 2 x control;

Control

?

why do force protection
Why 'do' Force Protection?
  • It keeps people alive; uninjured, healthy:
    • Humanitarian considerations
    • Morale
    • Commander's duty
    • Legal obligations
  • Maintains operational effectiveness
clausewitz
Clausewitz
  • How good is your early 18th Century German?
  • Zweck
  • Mittel
  • Ziele
the dialectic
The Dialectic
  • An interchange of Ends (aims) and Means
  • Ways, Ends and Means?
  • Also, an interchange between enemy and friendly forces
the dialectic1
The Dialectic

Own Forces

Enemy Forces

the dialectic2
The Dialectic

Own Aims

Own Means

the dialectic3
The Dialectic

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

the dialectic4
The Dialectic

Own Forces

Enemy Forces

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

the dialectic5
The Dialectic

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

force protection
Force Protection?

Preventing this

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

force protection1
Force Protection?

To enable us to do this

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

example 2 batus and digital situational awareness sa
Example 2: BATUS and Digital Situational Awareness (SA)‏
  • Better SA: Knowing where my tanks and his tanks are
  • ... fewer of my tanks are lost because we know where the enemy is
  • ... therefore more of my tanks cross the line of departure
  • ... therefore I'm more likely to win; to win quicker; and to suffer fewer casualties.
example 2 batus and digital situational awareness
Example 2: BATUS and Digital Situational Awareness

All just a wee bit 'Cold War'

  • Better SA: Knowing where my tanks and his tanks are
  • ... fewer of my tanks are lost because we know where the enemy is
  • ... therefore more of my tanks cross the line of departure
  • ... therefore I'm more likely to win; to win quicker; and to suffer fewer casualties.
example 2 improvised explosive devices ieds in northern ireland
Example 2: Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Northern Ireland
  • Improvements in countering IEDs keep soldiers alive
  • ... but you can't stop terrorists inventing new kinds of bombs
  • ... so you're always reacting?
  • The terrorist always has the initiative?
example 2 improvised explosive devices in northern ireland
Example 2: Improvised Explosive Devices in Northern Ireland
  • But:
    • Link intelligence, tactics, organisations, scientific advice, EOD policy, training, EW, ...
    • Wargame
    • Couple them very closely into a very responsive system
    • You can then react very quickly to changes in the threat
    • ... and begin to predict, and even pre-empt, changes in the threat
example 2 improvised explosive devices in northern ireland1
Example 2: Improvised Explosive Devices in Northern Ireland
  • And:
    • .... so you can begin to reduce the terrorist's initiative
    • ... and he's no longer 'doing' terror
    • What do you call a terrorist who can't 'do' terror?
deductions
Deductions
  • Force Protection can have operational-level consequences
  • You are removing, or at least affecting, his MEANS; and thus also his aims
the dialectic6
The Dialectic

You are now doing this

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

the dialectic7
The Dialectic

...and preventing him doing this

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

the dialectic8
The Dialectic

What is this?

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

countering ieds
Countering IEDs
  • A lot of very expensive technology?
  • The '10% / 30% / 60%' Rule
  • Deductions:
    • 1: Minor unit tactics are twice as important as technology
    • 2. Luck can play a significant part: if you are prepared to exploit it
countering irregular activity
Countering Irregular Activity
  • A lot of very expensive technology?
  • The '10% / 30% / 60%' Rule
  • Deductions:
    • 1: Minor unit tactics are twice as important as technology
    • 2. Luck can play a significant part: if you are prepared to exploit it
other examples
Other Examples
  • Urban and rural multiple patrolling
  • Helicopter top cover to rural foot patrols
  • Many of these measures are highly asymmetric
  • They will not translate directly to other theatres
observation
Observation

Have the lessons of Northern Ireland been carried into other theatres?

observation1
Observation

Have the lessons of Northern Ireland been carried into other theatres?

Yes?

observation2
Observation

Have the lessons of Northern Ireland been carried into other theatres?

Yes?

No

1 the dialectic
1: The Dialectic

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

1 the dialectic1
1: The Dialectic

Force Protection is not just about this

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

1 the dialectic2
1: The Dialectic

It's also about this

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

1 the dialectic3
1: The Dialectic

Which directly affects this

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

1 the dialectic4
1: The Dialectic

Hence we can win

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

deductions 2
Deductions (2)‏
  • Tactical Force Protection measures can have operational level consequences: They can deny the insurgent, or terrorist, the ability to achieve his aims; and hence contribute directly to operational success
deductions 3
Deductions (3)‏
  • Issues such as minor unit tactics can be twice as important as technology
  • Luck can play a significant part: if you are prepared to exploit it
  • That requires suitable organisations and processes at the theatre, or campaign, level.
the dialectic9
The Dialectic

Own Forces

Enemy Forces

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means

the dialectic10
The Dialectic

Own Forces

Enemy Forces

Enemy Aims

Own Aims

Own Means

Enemy Means