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Plan for Today: Forms of Liberalism in IR. Delving in detail into newer forms of liberalism: “English school”. Liberal Interdependence. Neoliberal Institutionalism. International Society/ “English School”: Hedley Bull. The Anarchical Society (1977)

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plan for today forms of liberalism in ir
Plan for Today:Forms of Liberalism in IR
  • Delving in detail into newer forms of liberalism:
    • “English school”.
    • Liberal Interdependence.
    • Neoliberal Institutionalism.
international society english school hedley bull
International Society/ “English School”: Hedley Bull
  • The Anarchical Society (1977)
  • Argued that a society of sorts has developed in international politics.
  • Criticizes realist view that anarchy is brutal:
    • International state of nature not Hobbesian state of nature.
    • Perhaps Lockean state of nature instead.
international society english school hedley bull1
International Society/ “English School”: Hedley Bull
  • Limited society develops in system of states that are in constant contact with one another.
  • Examples:
    • “Hue and cry” raised by other states when one state does something morally abhorrent.
    • Loyalty among allies – carries on beyond the security needs of states.
liberal interdependence theory
Liberal Interdependence Theory
  • Ontology: Includes many different kinds of actors as being causally significant actors.
    • “Global civil society”



International organizations



liberal interdependence theory1
Liberal Interdependence Theory
  • Free trade and removal of barriers to commerce  integration and cooperation among states.
    • Early works: cooperation in limited technical areas could “spill over” into other areas for mutual benefit.
    • E.g. Keohane & Nye (1977)
liberal interdependence theory2
Liberal Interdependence Theory
  • Technological change of key importance (esp. communications, travel).
    • Increases power of nonstate actors.
      • Email and Internet revolutionary.
      • E.g. Friedman: Lexus and the Olive Tree.
    • Decreases costs & risks of cooperation.
      • Trade less costly.
      • More information to decrease uncertainty.
neoliberal institutionalism
Neoliberal Institutionalism
  • Assumptions (accept realist) – Robert Keohane, After Hegemony (1984)
    • States are the main actors.
    • States are selfish and rational actors.
    • International system is anarchic.
neoliberal institutionalism1
Neoliberal Institutionalism
  • Principal Claims:
    • New conclusion : cooperation can develop among states under anarchy.
    • Anarchy is mitigated by regimes and institutional cooperation, which bring regular patterns to IR.
neoliberal institutionalism regimes
Neoliberal InstitutionalismRegimes
  • Regime (Krasner definition):
    • “implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules, and decisionmaking procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a given area”
    • i.e. sets of rules that may or may not have international organizations associated with them.
    • Similar to “institution.”
    • Bigger than individual agreements.
neoliberal institutionalism regimes1
Neoliberal InstitutionalismRegimes
  • Example: Bretton Woods international monetary regime (1944-1970s)
    • Governed currency relations among states, allowing for significant domestic capital controls.
    • International Monetary Fund created as part of regime.
neoliberal institutionalism regimes2
Neoliberal InstitutionalismRegimes
  • Neoliberals: argue regimes can play role in helping states to realize mutual interests.
  • Neorealists: argue regimes defined according to power capabilities of states.
    • E.g. Bretton Woods – reflected US interests.
neoliberal institutionalism2
Neoliberal Institutionalism
  • Area and Problems of Focus:
    • Chiefly economic issues.
    • Usually actions to resolve instances of market failure: problems that prevent markets from providing socially optimal allocation of resources.