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The Industrial Revolution (1750-1914). The First Industrial Revolution: Britain (1750-1850). The SECOND Industrial Revolution: Western Europe, USA, Japan (1850-1914). Historical Significance of the Industrial Revolution.

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historical significance of the industrial revolution
Historical Significance of the Industrial Revolution
  • An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life was not much different – agriculture and technology were not much changed in 2000+ years
  • The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically
  • More was created in the last approximately 250 years than in the previous 2500+ years of known human history
what was the industrial revolution
What was the Industrial Revolution?
  • The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, from human labour to machines
  • The more efficient means of production and subsequent higher levels of production triggered far-reaching changes to industrialized societies
  • Machines were invented that replaced human labour
  • New energy sources were developed to power the new machinery – water, steam, electricity, oil (gas, kerosene)
  • Increased use of metals and minerals
    • Aluminum, coal, copper, iron, etc.
developments continued
Developments Continued
  • Transportation improved
    • Ships
      • Wooden ships → Iron ships → Steel ships
      • Wind-powered sails → Steam-powered boilers
    • Trains
    • Automobiles
  • Communication improved
    • Telegraph
    • Telephone
    • Radio
developments continued1
Developments Continued
  • Mass production of goods
    • Increased numbers of goods
    • Increased diversity of goods produced
  • Development of factory system of production
    • “Division of Labour” – complex tasks completed as a series of simpler tasks. Less skilled workers needed.
  • Rural-to-urban migration
    • People left farms to work in cities
developments continued2
Developments Continued
  • Development of capitalism
    • Financial capital (investment) for continued industrial growth
  • Development and growth of new socio-economic classes
    • Working class (proletariat) and wealthy industrial class (bourgeoisie or middle class)
  • Commitment to research and development
    • Investments in new technologies
    • Industry and government interest in promoting invention, the sciences, and overall industrial growth
background of the industrial revolution
Background of the Industrial Revolution
  • Commercial Revolution
    • 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries
    • Europeans expanded their power worldwide
    • Increased geographic knowledge
    • Colonies in the Americas and Asia
    • Increased trade and commerce
    • Guild system (associations of tradespeople or merchants) could not meet the demands of increasing numbers goods
background of the industrial revolution1
Background of the Industrial Revolution
  • Scientific Revolution
    • 17th and 18th centuries
    • Discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, etc.
  • Intellectual Revolution (Enlightenment)
    • 17th and 18th centuries
    • Writings of Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, etc.
  • Atmosphere of discovery and free intellectual inquiry
    • Greater knowledge of the world
    • Weakened superstition and tradition
    • Encouraged learning and the search for better and newer ways of doing things

Something occurred in Britain that was both a cause and an effect of the Industrial Revolution…

the agricultural revolution1
The Agricultural Revolution
  • Agricultural methods had not changed much since the Middle Ages
  • Tools – hoe, sickle, wooden plow
  • Open-field system – unfenced farms with few improvements made to the land. Farmers sometimes worked several strips in different locations – inefficient.
  • Three-field system – farmers left 1/3 of the land fallow each year to restore fertility to the soil – inefficient, but necessary.
  • No significant surplus – only enough food was made to feed the population
britain s enclosure acts
Britain’s Enclosure Acts
  • Between 1760 and 1830, Britain consolidated (enclosed) the small parcels of land in the Open Field System through a series of acts to make farming more efficient
  • Formed large parcels of land that could now be owned by wealthy land owners and experimented on (new methods/varieties of crops applied to fallow)
  • Much of the taken-over land was used for sheep grazing to feed the Industrial Revolution’s demand for wool
  • Less available land and low demand for farmers cost a lot of farmers their land and livelihood
agriculture and industry
Agriculture and Industry
  • The Industrial Revolution brought machinery to farms and increased food production
  • The use of farm machinery meant that fewer farm workers were needed
  • Displaced farm workers moved to the cities to find work in factories
    • This is called rural-to-urban migration
  • Growing populations in urban cities required farmers to grow more crops
    • Food to eat
    • Raw materials (like cotton) for textile factories
social changes population increases
Social Changes:Population Increases
  • Many people immigrated to industrialized countries
    • Numerous nationalities to the United States
    • Irish to Manchester and Liverpool in England
  • Population growth in industrialized nations required growing even more food