Eng - 213 Dr. Hala Ismail
When to cite: • When you’re referring to an idea or concept you drew from something you read. • When you quote from something you read or heard. • When you want to give the reader some other places to look for additional information.
In-text citation YOU MUST GIVE CREDIT IF YOU HAVE BORROWED A QUOTE OR IDEA FROM ANOTHER, OR IF YOU HAVE PARAPHRASED SOMEONE ELSE’S WORK.
Paraphrasing • PARAPHRASE: changed the words, but the idea remains the same. • Information Required: - Author(s) name - Date of Publication • Sample: • Scott (1992) identified… • Several researchers (Anthony, 1990; Gregory & Jacobs, 1985; Polk et al., 1980) reported… • Or at the end of a sentence paraphrased from another work (Scott, 1992).
Quotations • Information Required: - Author(s) name - Date of Publication - Page number • Sample: According to Hastings (2004), “The sources presented provided modified results” (p. 421).
Quotations • Quotes of 40 or more words appear in a block quotation format, indented with no quotation marks. • Sample: They are not intended to cause permanent pain or suicide. According to Hayes (2005), Self-inflicted injury is a coping mechanism, albeit not a particularly healthy one, used by those who want to live and are struggling to control their emotions. This self-injurious act is indicative of a failure by an individual to develop positive coping skills in the face of overwhelming stress. (p.1172)
Unknown author: • If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. • A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).
Unknown Author and Unknown Date • If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date"). Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).
End-of-text citation • Refers to the References list at the end of the paper • The List • is labeled References (centered, no font changes) • continues page numbering from the last page of text • is alphabetical • is double spaced
Documenting online journals Model: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved month date, year, from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ Sample: Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved February 20, 2001, from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html
Documenting websites No author, article found on resource website: Nebraska school nurse honored during 100th Anniversary Celebration. (2007). Answers4Families. Retrieved September 26, 2007, from http://nncf.unl.edu/ nurses/info/anniversary.html
Sample reference page References Fussell, P. (1975). The Great War and modern memory. New York: Oxford UP. Marcus, J. (1989). The asylums of Antaeus: Women, war, and madness—is there a feminist fetishism? In H. A. Veeser (Ed.), The New Historicism (pp. 132-151). New York: Routledge. Mott, F. W. (1916). The effects of high explosives upon the central nervous system. The Lancet, 55(2), 331-38. Showalter, E. (1997). Hystories: Hysterical epidemics and modern media. New York: Columbia UP.