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孔子论仁 , 道及天 Confucius on Benevolence, Humans, and Heaven ( Analects ). I. 孔子论仁与人 I. Benevolence / humanness and humans:. 有子曰,其為人也孝 第,而好犯上做亂者鮮矣;不好犯上而好做亂者,未之有也。君子務本本立而道生。 孝弟也者,其為仁之本与。

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有子曰,其為人也孝 第,而好犯上做亂者鮮矣;不好犯上而好做亂者,未之有也。君子務本本立而道生。 孝弟也者,其為仁之本与。
  • Yu Tz said, “It is rare for a man whose character is such that he is good as son and obedient as a young man to have the inclination to transgress against his superiors; it is unheard of for one who has no such inclination to be inclined to start a rebellion. The gentleman devotes his efforts to the roots, for once the roots are established, the Way will grow there from. Being good as a son and obedient as a young man is, perhaps, the root of a man’s character. (Reading: Analects, p.59)
子曰:巧言令色鮮仁矣。 (《學而》)
  • The Master said, “It is rare, indeed, for a man with cunning words and an ingratiating face to be benevolent.” (Reading: Analects, p.59)
  • 子曰:人而不仁,如禮何;人而不仁,如樂何。(《八佾》)
  • Master said, “What can a man do with the rites who is not benevolent? What can a man do on the music who is not benevolent?” (Reading: Analects, p. 67)
  • The Master said, “One who is no benevolent cannot remain long in straitened circumstances, nor can he remain long in easy circumstances. The benevolent man is attracted to benevolence because he feels at home in it. The wise man is attracted to benevolence because he finds it to his advantage [The wise man is attracted to benefit others]. It is only the benevolent man who is capable of liking or disliking other men. If a man sets his heart on benevolence, he will be free from evil.” (Reading: Analects, p. 72)
子曰: 我未見好仁者惡不仁者。好仁者無以尚之,惡不仁者,其為仁矣。不使不仁者加乎其身. (《里仁》)
  • Master said, “I have never met a man who finds benevolence attractive or a man who finds un-benevolence repulsive. A man who finds benevolence attractive cannot be surpassed. A man who finds un-benevolence repulsive can, perhaps, be counted as benevolent, for he would not allow what is not benevolent to contaminate his person.” (Reading: Analects, p. 72-73)
子曰:知者樂水,仁者樂山。知者動,仁者靜;知者樂,仁者壽。 (《雍也》)
  • The master said, “The wise find joy in water; the benevolent find joy in mountains. The wise are active; the benevolent are still. The wise are joyful; the benevolent are long-lived.” (Reading: Analects, p. 84)
confucian texts
Confucian Texts

2. The methods to reach benevolence:

己欲立而立人,己欲達而達人。能近取譬,可謂仁之方也已。 (《雍也》)

“Now, on the other hand, a benevolent man helps others to take their stand in so far as himself wishes to take his stand, and gets others there in so far as he himself wishes to get there. The ability to take as analogy what is near at hand can be called the method of benevolence.” (Reading: Analects, p. 85)

子曰:仁遠乎哉,我欲仁,斯仁至矣。 (《述而》)

The Master said, “Is benevolence really far away? No sooner do I desire it than it is here. “ (Reading: Analects, p. 90)

子曰: 知者不惑,仁者不憂,勇者不懼。 (《子罕》)

The master said, “The man of wisdom is never in two minds; the man of benevolence never worries; the man of courage is never afraid.” (Reading: Analects, p. 100)

II. Confucius views

of the Way (Dao):

II. Confucius views of the Way (Dao):
  • 君子食無求飽,居無求安,敏于事而慎于言。就有道而正焉。可謂好學也已。 (《學而》)
  • The Mater said, “The gentleman seeks neither a full belly nor a comfortable home. He is quick in action but cautious in speech. He goes to men possessed of the Way to be put right. Such a man can be described as eager to learn.” (Reading: Analects: p. 61 # 14)
  • The Master said, “Guide them by edicts, keep them in line with punishments, and the common people will stay out of trouble but will have no sense of shame. Guide them by virtue, keep them in line with the rites, and they will, besides having a sense of shame, reform themselves.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 63 # 3)
二三子何患于喪權辱,天下之無道久矣。(《八 》)
  • “What worry have you, gentlemen, about the loss of office? The Empire has long been without the Way.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 71 # 24)
  • The Master said, “Wealth and high station are what men desire but unless I got them in the right way I would not remain in them. Poverty and low station are what men dislike, but even if I did not get them in the right way I would not try to escape from them.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 72, # 5)
  • The Master said, “He has not lived in vain who dies the day he is told about the Way” [If I knew the Way in the early morning and I would not be mind to die in the evening]. (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 73, # 8)
子曰: 士志于道而恥惡衣惡食者,未足与議也. (《里仁》)
  • The Master said, “There is no point in seeking the views of a Gentleman who, thought he sets his heart on the Way, is ashamed of poor food and poor clothes.” (Reading: Analects: p. 73, # 9)
  • The Master said, “There is one single thread binding my way together.” Tseng Tzu (Zeng Zi) said, “The way of the Master consists in doing one’s best and in using oneself as a measure to gauge others. That is all.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 74, # 15)
  • The Master said, “If, for three years, a man makes no changes to his father’s ways, he can be said to be a good son.” Reading Materials, Analects: p. 75, # 20)
子謂Nan-Jung (Nan Rong): 邦有道不廢;邦無道,免于刑戮。(《公冶長》)
  • The Maser said of Nan-Jung that “when the Way prevailed in the state he was not cast aside and when the Way fell into disuse he stayed clear of the humiliation of punishment.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 76, # 2)
  • 子曰: 道不行,乘桴浮于海。 (《公冶長》
  • The Master said, “If the Way should fail to prevail and I were to put see on a raft.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 76, # 7)
子謂子產有君子之道四焉:其行己也恭,其事上也敬,其養民也惠,其使民也義。 (《公冶長》)
  • The Master said of Tzu-Ch’an that “he had the way of the gentleman on four counts: he was respectful in the manner he conducted himself; he was reverent in the service of his lord; in caring for the common people, he was generous and, in employing their services, he was just.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 78, # 16)
  • The Master said, “Ning Wu Tzu was intelligent when the Way prevailed in the state, but stupid when it did not. Others may equal his intelligence but they cannot equal his stupidity.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 79, # 21)
子曰:篤信好學,守死善道,危邦不入,亂邦不居。天下有道則見,無道則隱。邦無道,貧且賤焉,恥也;邦無道,富且貴焉,恥也。 (《泰伯》)
  • The Master said, “Have the firm faith to devote yourself to learning, and abide to the death in the good way. Enter not a state that is in peril; stay not in a state that is in danger. Show yourself when the Way prevails in the Empire, but hide yourself when it does not. It is a shameful matter to be poor and humble when the Way prevailed in the state. Equally, it is a shameful matter to be rich and noble when the Way falls into disuse in the state.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 94, # 13)
子曰:人能弘道,非道弘人。 (《衛靈公》)
  • The Master said, “It is Man who is capable of broadening the Way. It is not the Way that is capable of broadening Man.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 136, # 29)
  • 君子謀道不謀食。耕也,餒在其中也;學也,祿在其中矣。君子憂道不憂貧。 (《衛靈公》)
  • The Master said, “The Gentleman devotes his mind to attaining the Way and not to securing the food. Go and till the land and you will end up by being hungry, as a matter of course. The gentleman worries about the Way, not about poverty.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 136, # 32)
孔子曰: 天下有道,則禮樂征伐自天子出;天下無道,則禮樂征伐自諸侯出。(《季氏》)
  • Confucius said, “When the Way prevails in the Empire, the rites and music and punitive expeditions are initiated by the Emperor. When the Way does not prevail in the Empire, they are initiated by the feudal lords.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 139, # 2)
  • 天下有道,則政不在大夫;天下有道,則庶人不議。(《季氏》)
  • “When the Way prevails I the Empire, policy dose not rest with the Councilors. When the Way prevails in the Empire, the Commoners do not express critical views.” (Reading: Analects: p. 139, # 2)
III. Confucius’ views on “Heaven”
  • 子曰: 不怨天,不尤人,下學而上達,知我者其天乎?《憲問》)
  • The Master said, “I do not complain against Heaven nor do I blame Man. In my studies, I start from below and get through to what is up above. If I am understood at all, it is, perhaps, by Heaven.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 129, # 35.)
  • Confucius said, “The gentleman stands in awe of three things. He is in awe of the Decree of Heaven. He is in awe of great men. He is in awe of the words of the sages. The small man, being ignorant of the Degree of Heaven, does not stand in awe of it. He treats great men with insolence and the words of the sages with derision.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 140 # 8)
  • Tzu-Kung said, “One can get to hear about the Master’s accomplishments, but one cannot get to hear his views on human nature and the Way of Heaven.” (Reading Materials, Analects: p. 78, # 13)