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Supernationalism
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  1. Supernationalism • Why Do States Cooperate with Each Other? • Future of world’s sovereign states challenged by globalization • States are willingly transferring authority to regional organizations • Established primarily through economic cooperation

  2. Supranationalism • Definition • Growing trend to organize political and economic affairs at the international level rather than national level • Refer to entities in which three or more countries form an alliance for cultural, economic, or military reasons. • Created so that states can collectively reach a common goal they may not be able to reach independently • Issues • If a country threatens other states, supranational organizations may impose sanctions • Punishments in the form of economic and/or diplomatic limits • Example: Iraq • Growth of Supranational alliances challenges conceptions of state sovereignty • Often must give up some powers • Example: European Union • Countries were reluctant to give up their currencies and covert to the Euro

  3. Political and Military Cooperation • International and regional organizations were established primarily to prevent a third world war in the twentieth century and protect countries from a foreign attack • Some examples: • League of Nations (post WWI) • United Nations • Warsaw Pact • NATO • ASEAN • European Union • African Union

  4. United Nations • Created at the end of WWII by Allies • Comprised 49 states in 1945 • By 2007 had 192 members • Three major increases • 1955: liberated European countries • 1960: 17 new countries from Africa • 1990s: 26 former communist countries and microstates • Today more than 200 member states • Most extensive supranational organization ever established

  5. United Nations • Members can vote to establish a peace-keeping force • Can request states to contribute military forces • Plays an important part in trying to separate warring groups in Eastern Europe, Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa • UN often lacks enough troops to maintain peace • Any one of 5 members of permanent security council can veto peace operations • Tries to maintain neutrality • Difficult in many cases • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Despite shortcomings represents a forum where all states can meet and vote on issues without resorting to war

  6. Regional Military Alliances • In addition to joining the United Nations, many states joined military regional alliances after WWII • Led to emergence of two superpowers U.S. and U.S.S.R. • Era of Two Superpowers • Both U.S. and U.S.S.R. deployed forces into different regions of the world • Balance of power • Roughly equal strength between opposing alliances • Both demonstrated they would use military power if needed • U.S.S.R. • Hungary, Czechoslovakia • U.S. • Dominican Republic, Grenada Panama

  7. Military Cooperation in Europe • Post WWII most European States joined one of two military alliances • NATO • Designed to maintain a bipolar balance in Europe • Agreement between 16 states • Prevent Soviet Union from overrunning West Germany and other smaller countries • Expanded to include former Communist countries • Warsaw Pact • Military agreement among Communist Eastern European to defend each other • 7 members in 1955 • Provided Soviet Union with a buffer of allied states between it and Germany • disbanded

  8. Regional Organizations • Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) • 56 members • Includes U.S., Canada, and Russia • Founded in 1975 • Plays limited role • Forum for countries concerned with conflicts • Especially in Caucasus and Balkans • Organization of American States (OAS) • 35 states in Western Hemisphere • Cuba was a member, suspended 1962 • Promotes social, cultural, political, and economic links among member states • Africa Union (AU) • 53 Countries • Established in 2002 • Replaced Organization of African Unity (1963) • Founded to seek an end to Colonialism and apartheid in Africa • New organization has placed more emphasis on promoting economic integration in Africa • China’s involvement? • Commonwealth • UK and 52 once British colonies • Economic and cultural cooperation

  9. Economic Cooperation • Economic power is becoming more important than military power • China, Japan and Germany superpowers • Russia has slipped in strength • Leading superpower not US or Russia but the EU led by Germany • Economic supranationalism • the integration of three of more states for achieving collective economic goals • Example: European Union

  10. European Union • Formerly known as: • European Economic Community (1958) • Also called Common Market • European Community • Once more states joined • Established in 1958 • Included: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany • Designed to heal scars of WWII • A European parliament is elected by the people in each of the member states simultaneously • Main goal is to promote development within the member states through economic cooperation • Became European Union in 1992 • Had economic, political, cultural, and judicial integration goals • The Euro • Might become a military alliance as well in future

  11. Members of EU • Members • Original countries • Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, West Germany • 1980s- 12 countries • 21st century- 27 countries • New member states • Croatia is expected to become the 28th member state of the EU on 1 July 2013 • There are five candidate countries: Iceland, Macedonia, Montenegro Serbia and Turkey.

  12. New World Order • During Cold War, world divided into pro-communist and anti-communist • World power was balanced in such a bi-polar world • Geopolitical transition has occurred since fall of Soviet Union • Economically • Many superpowers dominate the market • United States • European Union • China • Militarily • United States maintains superpower status • Increasingly challenged by terrorism and other types of warfar

  13. Why has Terrorism Increased?

  14. Terrorism by individuals or organizations • Terrorism is the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands • Terrorists attempt to achieve their objectives through organized acts that spread fear and anxiety throughout the population • Terrorists consider violence necessary as a means of bringing widespread publicity to goals

  15. Terrorism by Individuals and Organizations • Term terror first used during French Revolution 1793 • Today Terrorism used to describe actions of groups operating outside government • Distinguishing terrorism from other acts of violence sometimes difficult

  16. Terrorism against Americans • 1988: Pan Am Flight 103 • Lockerbie, Scotland • Killed 259 aboard, plus 11 on the ground • 1993: World Trade Center • Car bomb • Damaged building • Killed 6, injured 1,000 • 1995: Oklahoma City • Car bomb • Killed 168 people in Federal Building • 1996: Saudi Arabia • Truck bomb killed 19 US Soldiers, injured more than 100 • Targeted American apartment complex • 1998: US Embassies • Both Kenya and Tanzania • Bombed • Killed 190, wounded 5,000 • 2000: USS Cole • Bombed while in Yemen • Killed 17 US Servicemen • Others • Ted Kaczynski – the unabomber • Killed 3 people, injuring 23 others

  17. Pan Am Flight 103

  18. World Trade Center 1993

  19. Oklahoma City 1995

  20. 1996 Saudi Arabia

  21. 1998: US Embassies

  22. 2000 USS Cole

  23. September 11, 2001 • WTC and Pentagon attacked • Over 3,000 died • 93 on American Airlines Flight 11 • 65 on United Airlines Flight 175 • 2,605 at the WTC • 64 on American Airlines Flight 77 • 125 at the Pentagon • 44 on United Airlines Flight 93

  24. Al-Qaeda • Responsible for most attacks in 1990s, as well as Sept.11 • Founded by Osama bin Laden • Saudi billionaire • Moved to Afghanistan in 1980’s to support fight against Soviet Union • Called the fight a jihad • Recruited Muslim militants • Returned to Saudi Arabia after war ended, but was expelled • Moved to Sudan but was expelled for attacks against American in 1994 • Issued a declaration of war against US in 1996 because of US support of Israel and supporting Saudi Arabian monarchy • Issued a fatwa (religious decree) arguing the Muslims had a duty to wage a Holy War against the U.S.

  25. Al-Qaeda • Means “foundation” • Created in 1990 to unite jihad fighters • Membership around 20,000 • Located in 34 countries • Several “cells” • Most live in ordinary society, called sleepers • Implicated in several bombings • Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Britain, Egypt, Jordan • Not a single unified organization • Number unknown • Use religion to justify attacks

  26. Al-Qaeda cells • Cells • Spain • Kenya • JemmahIsamiyah • Southeast Asia • Concentrated in Indonesia • Several bombings • Oct 12, 2002- killed 202 • Aug 5, 2003- killed 12 • Sept 9, 2004- killed 11 • Oct 1, 2005- killed 23

  27. State Support for Terrorism • Several Middle East states have supported terrorism in recent years by: • Provide sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries • Supply weapons, money, and intelligence to other terrorists • Plan attacks using terrorists • Libya • Accused of sponsoring terrorists in 1986 bombing of Germany nightclub • US relations poor with Libya since 1981 • U.S. responded with air strikes in Tripoli and Benghazi • Libyan agents planted bombs on Pan Am Flight 170 in 1988 as well as on UTA Flight 772 • UN Sanctions followed • Libya “renounced” terrorism in 2003

  28. Afghanistan • Civil war began in 1973 when king was overthrown • 5 years later a bloody coup was led by Soviet Union • Sent in 115,000 troops into Afghanistan in 1979 to quell the Muslim fundamentalists rebellion • Soviet Union withdrew in 1989 and the Soviet-backed government fell by 1992 • Taliban gained control over most of the country • 6 years of Taliban rule came to an end in 2001 following US invasion • Went after terrorists • Taliban harbored bin Laden • Removal of Taliban unleashed new struggle for control of Afghanistan • Taliban were able to regroup

  29. Iraq • Saddam became president in 1979 • Iran-Iraq war 1980, ended in stalemate in 1988 • 1988 Hussein gassed Iraqi Kurds • 1990 Hussein invaded Kuwait • Led to Operation Desert Storm (U.S. led) • Allowed to stay in power as long as he disabled weapons program • U.S. linked Saddam to Al-Qaeda • U.S. invaded in 2003 • Changed to a focus on a new regime change after no WMDs found • Iraq is divided into 150 tribes • Most Iraqis have loyalty to tribes not government • Ethnic groups split into regions • Sunni vs Shiite war

  30. Iran • Hostile with U.S. since 1979 revolution • The pro-US shah was overthrown • Ayatollah Khomeini proclaimed Iran an Islamic Republic • Rewrote constitution of Iran • Today US worried about: • Iran harboring and aiding terrorists • Building nuclear weapons

  31. Pakistan • Created after Partition in 1947 • War of Terror has spilled into Pakistan • Pakistan is multi-ethnic state • Overwhelmingly Muslim • Taliban controls border with Afghanistan • Rugged, mountainous area • Hid bin Laden in Pakistan