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Internationalization:Theory to Practice? Practice to Theory? Dr. Josef Mestenhauser Professor Emeritus, University of Minnesota Anne D'Angelo King Assistant Dean of International Programs, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota
Develop leadership: requires additional knowledge of dynamics of cross-cultural orgs Understand at least one culture and language Learn to cooperate, network, in diverse teams Learn to produce new knowledge beyond borders Think “emic” and “etic” Unlearn some things Understand multiple ways of knowing Understand that technical competence not sufficient Understand and practice higher order intellectual skills, esp. critical, creative, comparative, complexity, meta-learning, self-reflection Learn how to conceptualize future and identify trends Understand self (identity, self-regulation, self-motivation, self-reflection Understand sources and intensity of anti-Americanism - new survey learn how to conceptualize future and identify trends Learning Needs for the Future
Global Competencies Needed in Business Students • Understanding global market perceptions and realities • Effectively communicating across cultures • Effectively managing across cultures • Facilitating global teams • Creating innovative solutions to global business challenges
Definition of curriculum Curriculum is the external manifestation of an underlying conceptual system about a) nature and structure of the subject-matter that is being taught, b) students’ conceptions (sometimes preconceptions or misconceptions) of that subject-matter and c) mechanism of cognitive change, i.e. learning and development. Sidney Strauss in Routledge International Companion to Education 2000
Features of the curriculum • specified curriculum • enacted curriculum • experienced curriculum
MBA Internationalization FrameworkSource: Global Exposure in Leading MBA Programs, 2009(Adapted from Alon and McAllaster (2005) in Dyer, Liebrenz-Himes, and Hassan) Students Curriculum Faculty Indirect Global Exposure Direct Global Exposure GLOBALIZATION OF AN MBA PROGRAM • Content/themes in Program • Program Location(s) • Competitive Advantages/Partnerships • Structural Program Academic Policies • Faculty Hiring and Retooling Accrediting Standards Global MBA Competition Globalization
Trends: Curricular ApproachesMBA Roundtable 2009 Survey • Curricular Approaches • Variety • Most Common: • Classroom based • Short-Term Global • Required courses on international management • International Faculty • Trend towards requirement • 70% of respondents to MBA Roundtable survey had a formal requirement
Specific Case Examples • Consulting Model: UC Berkeley Haas MBA students work in teams in a consulting capacity with organizations around the world • Multicultural Team Consulting Model: U of M Carlson School MBA students work with international MBA partner students on a live business challenge for corporations • Student Driven: Northwestern University Kellogg MBA students are engaged in the planning and execution of a ten-week course on a particular country and area of focus • Multi-school collaboration: 13 CIBER host schools and their foreign partners bring students together for a seven-week virtual team project • Exchange: USC Moore School in cooperation with the Chinese University of Hong Kong offers an International Business and Chinese Enterprise degree program involving alternating years of study between the two institutions with internships in both countries.
Global mindset – positive disposition • Global mindset is a metacapability typified by two corresponding facets: an inclusive cognitive structure that directs attention and interpretation of information and a well developed competence for altering and revising this cognitive structure with new experiences. Maznievski, M. L. & Lane, H. W. (2004) Shaping the global mindset: designing educational experiences for effective global thinking and action. In N. Boyacigiller, R.M. Goodman & M. Phillips (Eds). Crossing cultures: Insights from master teachers. London: Routhledge
Aligning Outcomes of Education Abroad with Business NeedsSource: What Does It Mean to Be Globally Competent, Hunter, White and Godbey, 2006 • A catalyst for students to attain a broader mindset and to gain a deeper understanding of cultural norms and expectations of others and one’s self; • A mental framework for students to seek and organize knowledge; and • An ability to leverage the gained knowledge to interact, communicate, and work effectively and comfortably outside one’s environment.
Global Foundation for Management Education (AACSB & EFMD Collaboration)Key focus: “Global context” and increasing collaborations Challenges of internationalization: • growth • balancing global aspirations with local needs • quality assurance • sustaining scholarship • alignment with the future needs of organizations
Future Anti- Americanism System Intellectual skills in CC Emic Etic CULTURE Cognition Thinking of other people Leadership Inter disciplinarity