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theodore-witt

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The Properties of Matter
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  1. The Properties of Matter Chapter 2: Lecture 2

  2. V is for Volume • Volume is the amount of space something takes up • Whether it’s a speck of dust or Jupiter, all matter takes up space

  3. Measuring the volume of… Liquids: • Graduated cylinder • Displacement method • Measured in liters (L) & milliliters (mL) Solids: • Length x width x height Gases: • Since a gas expands to fill its container, if you know the volume of the container, you know the volume of the gas.

  4. 4. Reading the Meniscus Reading the Meniscus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_g0U3vxr18

  5. 5. Displacement Method for Volume Volume Displacement https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DGf5R6WDeo

  6. Density - The mass of a substance divided by its volume • Mass is the amount of matter in an object • Volume is the amount of space an object occupies

  7. 5. Eureka!! Volume & Density Eureka!Volume Density https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GMNpPgLT8Fk

  8. You try it!

  9. How can you describe things if you didn't know what they were? • Describing objects by using • size • shape • color • texture

  10. Properties • Everyone used similar descriptions • Some of the propertiesyou listed about your objectwere: size, weight and mass, shape, odor, sound • After opening your bag, you were able to list even more properties such as color, texture, etc.

  11. Properties of Matter • Apropertydescribes how an object looks, feels, or acts. • The objects shown here have different kinds of properties:

  12. Physical properties • Physical properties can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter • These are properties you notice when using one of your five senses: • Feel - mass, volume, texture • Sight - color • Hear • Smell • Taste

  13. Physical Properties • Color • Odor • Luster - How shiny a substance is • Malleability - The ability of a substance to be beaten into thin sheets • Ductility - The ability of a substance to be hammered thin or stretched into wire without breaking

  14. Conductivity - The ability of a substance to allow the flow of energy or electricity • Hardness - How easily a substance can be scratched • Melting/Freezing Point - The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure • Boiling Point - The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on the liquid (generally atmospheric pressure)

  15. More Physical Properties Density is a very important property. • It is the amount of matter in a given volume. • Density = Mass / Volume

  16. Properties are constantly changing... • Matter is constantly changing. • Ice in your soda melts, glass breaks, paper is ripped. • When ice in your soda melts where does it go? • What does it become?

  17. Physical vs. Chemical • Physical properties: are observed without changing the identity of the substance • Chemical properties: are observed only when the identity of the substance is changed • How do you know if a change is chemical or physical? • If it CHanges, it’s CHemical

  18. Chemical properties • A common chemical property is reactivity– the tendency of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, and to release energy • Reactive to oxygen (tarnishing of copper) • Reactive to air (burning wood) • Reactive to water (dissolving salt in water) • Notice that chemical properties aren’t EASY to observe, unlike physical properties.

  19. Physical Changes: • Changes in matter that do not alter the identity of the matter itself.

  20. Physical Changes • Changes that do NOT change the identity of the substance. • You may or may not be able to undo a physical change.

  21. If you remember, ice is water in the solid state. • When you drop the ice cube into the liquid, it begins to melt because the temperature is higher than that of the ice cube. • It's like putting a snowman on your front lawn in July. • The ice cube becomes liquid water. • This is an example of a physical change. • The solid water turned to liquid water.

  22. Chemical Changes • Chemical changes do alter the identity of a substance • In other words, a chemical change is when something changes into an entirely different substance • For example: • Iron rusting • Wood burning • Copper turning to brass • Baking a cake • spoiled milk

  23. Chemical properties- • These are properties that can only be observed by changing the identity of the substance. • A piece of paper burns and turns to a black substance. • After the flame goes out you can no longer burn the new substance. • The chemical properties have been changed.

  24. Milk needs to be in the refrigerator or else it will go bad • The milk gets a sour odor and becomes lumpy. This is a chemical change • Unlike physical changes, you cannot reverse chemical changes • You cannot make milk unspoiled

  25. The Take Home Message • State changes, like melting, freezing, boiling, are all PHYSICAL change. • The substance remains the same substance, it just changes what STATE or form it is in • CHEMICAL changes rearrange the atoms creating a new substance

  26. Chemical vs Physical Change • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gCbqjs-pqJo