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Radiation safety and protection. Christos Aggelopoulos, DDS. Vilhelm Konrad Roentgen. December 22, 1895. Setting the tube…. Setting the tube…. Early medical radiology…. January 14, 1896, the first dental radiograph. Dr Edmund Kells. ALARA. A s L ow A s R easonably A chievable.

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radiation safety and protection

Radiation safety and protection

Christos Aggelopoulos, DDS

slide9
ALARA

As

Low

As

Reasonably

Achievable

radiation protection measures
Radiation protection measures…
  • For the patient
  • For the oral health proffesional
slide11
FILTRATION

Removes unwanted, low energy X-rays

1.5 mm Al

For 50-69 KVp

2.5 mm Al

For 70 KVp and

above

slide12
COLLIMATION

Restricts the size and shape

of the X-ray beam

slide13
COLLIMATION

Field size from round cone is

3X that what is needed to

expose a #2 film

With RC the skin exposure

is reduced by about 60%

Compared to round collim.

slide14
COLLIMATION

Beam diameter no greater than 7 cm

at skin (Federal Regulation)

slide15
BEAM INDICATING DEVICES

Long (12”-16”), open-shielded, lead-lined

BIDs (cones) are recommended

Rectangular cones are recommended

over round cones

slide16
FILM HOLDING DEVICES

Accurate aiming

Eliminates patient holding film

slide17
FILM SPEED

E speed film reduces patient

exposure by 40%-50%

slide18
DIGITAL IMAGING

Further exposure

reduction

Image

enhancement

slide19
EXPOSURE CONTROL

Use electronic timers

only

Mechanical timers not

recommended

slide21
DARKROOM PROCEDURES

Adequate safelighting

and free of light leaks

Time temperature

processing

slide22
FILM MOUNTING AND VIEWING

Use opaque mounts

Mask viewbox

slide23
TAKE X-RAYS ONLY WHEN NEEDED
  • X-rays every 6 mo is not the rule
  • Apply FDA selection criteria for radiographic examinations
  • Take into account the welfare of the patient
  • Avoid routine radiographs
radiation protection measures for the operator
Radiation protection measures for the operator

Occupational exposure: 50 mSv/yr

Public exposure: 1-5 mSv/yr

Maximum permissible dose (MPD): The maximum dose

of radiation which will not be expected to cause any

significant radiation effects in a lifetime

radiation protection measures for the operator1
Radiation protection measures for the operator
  • Stand at least 6 feet away from the patient and 90o-130o to the primary beam
  • Stand behind a barrier
  • Never stand in the primary beam
  • Never hold films in the patient’s mouth
  • Never hold or stabilize the X-ray tubehead during the exposure
radiation protection measures for the operator2
Radiation protection measures for the operator

Quality assurance program:

Proper staff training

Monitoring of the X-ray machines

Darkroom protocol

Film badge service

Office design:

Primary and secondary barriers

discussion
DISCUSSION

What to keep in mind…

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