Miranda Lubbers & José Luis Molina The dynamics of personal networks Withthree substantive applications
TheSpanishteam • Miranda Lubbers (PI), AutonomousUniversity Barcelona • Isidro Maya Jariego, University of Seville • José Luis Molina, AutonomousUniversity Barcelona • Ainhoa Federico de la Rúa, University of Toulouse II – Le Mirail (and associatedwiththeUniversity of Málaga)
Ourproject • We focus on the dynamics of personal networks • Sociocentric networks are valuable for understanding the recurrent influence between a network and a behaviour of its members for which the organizational boundary is relevant(e.g., pupils’ peer relationships at school and their academic performance). • Our subproject is, however, interested in predicting individual outcomes that are not primarily produced within a single context, but for which all social circles in which a person moves need to be considered (e.g., social well-being, health, or adaptation of immigrants).
Personal networks • Personal networksrepresent an individual's social context, the intermediate level between the individual and society. • It is at this level that processes of socializationand social integration in society take place.
Paststudieshavelimitedourunderstanding of this social context: • (1) They tended to capture only a smallpartof thenetwork (e.g., the 5-10 mostintimate and supportiveties). • Weaktieshavetheirownvirtues, as they are more numerous, more heterogeneous, and lessconnectedamongthemselves.
Paststudieshavelimitedourunderstanding of this social context: • (2) Theyoftenmeasurednetworkcompositionbutnotstructure • Thestructure of relationshipsisassumedtoaffect the flow of information through a network (mobilization of social support, social control, conformity of opinions), which can have consequences for individual outcomes ego ego
Paststudieshavelimitedourunderstanding of this social context: • (3) Many measured personal networks cross-sectionally. • A longitudinal measurement helps us understand the processes of socialization or social integration, and accelerating or disruptive effects of life events on such processes
Thus… • Ifwewanttounderstandtheprocesses of socialization and integration in society, weneed: • largernetworks, • networkstructure, • longitudinal measurement • Thistype of data isexpensivetocollect, butthenumber of studieswith a more elaboratemeasurement of personal networksisgrowing
Buthowtoanalyzesuch data? • Typically, multilevelanalysisisusedtopredictpersistence of tiesover time orchangingcontents of ties… • … butitassumesthatrelationshipsamongalters are notimportantfortherelationshipstheyhavewith ego Ego Alter
Designforthis ECRP • To use SIENA tomodelthe “co-evolution” between… • Networks: Thestructure of relationshipsamongalters (dichotomous) • “Behavior”: Thestrength(/persistence) of relationshipsbetween ego and alters (valued/ dichotomous) • Outcomes at a higher (ego) level. Network of alters Tiestrength ego
Thiswouldenableustoinvestigate… • … forexample, • whether changes in network structure affect changes in the supportiveness of ego-alter ties • whether alters with whom ego feels closer over time become more embedded in their networks • whether relationshipswithstructurallyembeddedalters are easiertomaintain
Butwewouldneedsomechanges in SIENA • A Bayesianmodelthatworkswith ML and symmetric data • (…)
Test thisonthreeprojects • Twoempiricalprojectsproposedfor ECRP • José Luis • Miranda • Isidro • Ainhoa • Oneempiricalprojectattached: • Collaboration Claire Bidart, Ainhoa & Miranda ontheanalysis of changingnetworks of youths in the Caen study (4 waveswith 3-year intervals) Personal networks of immigrants, Catalonia Personal networks of highschoolgraduates, Alcalá / Sevilla
Researchquestions • At the individual level: • How do the personal networks of immigrantschangeover time (post-migratory)? • How are thesedynamicsassociatedwiththeprocess of immigrantadaptation? • At therelationshiplevel: • What drives thesechanges? • RSIENA: e.g., Which characteristics of respondents, alters, and networks explain whether ties with Spanish alters become stronger over time?
Sample • In 2004-’06 (t1): Interviews with 504 immigrants in Catalonia (N = 301) and New York (N = 203) • Fundedby NSF; PI: Chris McCarty, University of Florida • In 2007-’08 (t2): Second interview with a selection of 77 of theimmigrantsfromthefirstprojectwhostilllived in Catalonia • Fundedby ESF (previous ECRP); PI Spanishproject: José Luis Molina • In 2012 (t3): Third interview withas many of theparticipants of thesecond wave as we can trace, complementedwithpersonsfromthefirst wave only • Fundedbythe Ramón y Cajal grant of MICINN of Miranda Lubbers
Fourgroups of origin (in theSpanishproject) • Argentineans • Diversemotivationsformigration; typically individual migration • Verydiverseoccupations (reporter, psychologist, musician, architect, waiter…) • EasilyacceptedbythenativeSpanish, relativelyfewexperienceswithracism • Dominicans • Labourmigration • Secondarylabourmarket (construction, …) • More orlesshalf of themreportthatrelatives in origindependonthemeconomically • Moroccans • Mostnumerousgroupwithlongestresidence in Catalonia • Chainmigration, mostlylabourmigration (families) and familyreunification • Themajorityworks in thesecondarylabourmarket (cleaning, clothingindustry, farmlabour…) • Senegalese / Gambians • Mostrecentmigration of thefourgroups, predominantlymale; 42% alreadyhad histories of migration • Chainmigration, mostlytemporarylabourmigration(individual) • Themajorityworks in thesecondarylabourmarket(agriculture, construction, …) • Relatives in origindependonthemeconomically
Procedure of data collection • Mixed-methodsdesign: • 1. Quantitativepart: Surveywith personal networkinstrument • Computer-assisted personal interviews withthe software Egonet http://sourceforge.net/projects/egonet/ • 2. Qualitativepart: Semi-structured interviews • Audio-recorded
Illustration: Jürgen Lerner et al. (2008) Twoexamples of changingnetworks
A youngMoroccanwoman t1, lastyear in highschool HighSchool Red:Spaniards Green: Moroccans in Morocco Blue:Moroccans in Spain Gray: Theothers SIZE: Closeness (1-5, thelargerthecloser)
A youngMoroccanwoman t2, tryingtofind a job Hisfamily Husband and brothers/ sisters Therest of herfamily Red:Spaniards Green: Moroccans in Morocco Blue:Moroccans in Spain Gray: Theothers SIZE: Closeness (1-5) Friends and neighbors
Anexample of “ethnicsegregation” “ In thepast, I felt I belongedhere. At schooltheyalwayssaid “You are fromhere, you are Catalan”. Butnow… manypeople [Moroccans] whodon´tknowanythingaboutMorocco and whoonlyhave a Moroccanname, theycan´tfind a job. “I willcallyou”. TheymakeyoufeelMoroccan” “There are peoplewho do notletyoufeelcatalan. Theyhaveneversaidanythingto me directlybutyouknowtheytalkbadaboutMoroccans. And abouttheculture. And I amMoroccan. Itdoesn´tfeelgood, youknow? “I don´tfeel I belongherenorthere”
Argentineanwomant1 Catalanclass Husband Inlaws Bestfriends Red:Spaniards Green: Argentineans in Argentina Blue:Argentineans in Spain Gray: Theothers SIZE: Closeness (1-5) Withmargin: Stable Family, childhoodfriends and peopleknownviathem Peopleknownviatheinlaws
Argentineanwomant2 Peopleknownviatheinlaws Husband and friends Catalanclass Inlaws Neighbours in Argentina Red:Spaniards Green: Argentineans in Argentina Blue:Argentineans in Spain Gray: Theothers SIZE: Closeness (1-5) Withmargin: Stable Family Childhoodfriends Peopleknownviafamily
Anexample of “regression” “I feltArgentinean and itchanges bit by bit… nowthat I know a bit aboutthe [Catalan] language, I feel a bit more that I belonghere, butnotcompletely so.” “Itisdifficulttogo [to Argentina]. Every time I seehow my motheris a bit older and itis more difficulttoleaveheragain”. “I likethepeoplethere. If I hadtogo back, I wouldgoeasily. I would miss thecommodities, theorganizationisbetterhere, everythingiscleaner, but at the sentimental level…. I miss thefeeling, thetact, thecontact, and here I havenothing”
Illustration: Miranda Lubbers (2010) Someconclusionsfromthefirsttwowaves
Someconclusions: How do thenetworkschangeover time? • Althoughtherewas quite someturnover in thenetworks, we do not observe a tendencytoward “interactiveintegration” in the host society… no increases in: • thenumber of Spaniards • thestrength of tieswithSpaniards • thecentrality of Spaniards • Also, theaveragestrength of tiesdidn´tincrease. • Butnetworksbecamemore local over time (more co-ethnics in Spain plus highercentrality, lessco-ethnics in origin) • And theproportion of Spaniardswasalmosttwice as highamongthetiesthatweremostrecentlyformed(thanamongallties), and theseties do notdiffer in emotionalcloseness (nor in stability) fromtheyoungesttieswithcoethnics in Spain. It´s a slowprocess…
Someconclusions: How do thenetworkschangeover time? • Immigrantsmaintainedmany active relationshipswithpeople in the country of origin – and notonlydidtheymaintainties, theyalsoreactivated sleeping ties, formed new ties in origin… transnationalism • Theoveralltrends in factwerenotrepresentative of anynetwork: therewas a largevarietyamongindividuals of trajectories of networkchangeof whichintegrationisonlyone.
Are thenetworkdynamicsassociatedwithimmigrantadaptation? • Wefoundthatchanges in networkcomposition, evenwhentheywere temporal fluctuations (e.g., duetorecenttravelstoorigin), covarywithfluctuations in ethnicidentifications- wecannotconcludethis (yet) for sociocultural adaptation, becauseitdifferstoostronglybetweenthefourimmigrantgroups)
What drives thesechanges? • New relationshipswereacquired in definedcontexts(work places, neighbourhoods, a languagecoursewhichcreatemeetingopportunitieswithgroupsdependingonthecontext) and viaothers (transitivity) • … Wehavethe data preparedforSIENA …
Ilustración: José Luis Molina Thethird wave In preparation
Questionsforthethird wave... • To compare thedynamics at a short time intervalwithdynamics at a largerinterval • Wealsowanttocollectnew information(and omitsomeold variables), amongothers… • Includetwo new measures of psychologicaladaptation • More data onwhatflowsthroughthenetworksthatmakesthatnetworksfacilitateorhinderadaptation (social support, social control)
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