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Religion and Worldview

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  1. Religion and Worldview

  2. definitions • Worldview • Encompassing pictures of reality created by members of societies • Religion • “Ideas and practices that postulate reality beyond that which is immediately available to the senses” (Bowen, 2008) • Include beliefs that some kind of spiritual or supernatural powers exist

  3. Social Functions of Religion • Social functions • 1. • 2. • 3. • How does religion serve social functions • Offering rewards for good behavior and punishments for antisocial behavior • Seen in societies with ____________________

  4. Expressions of Religion • Kottak discusses 7 expressions of ritual: • Spiritual beings • Powers & Forces • Magic • Uncertainty, Anxiety, Solace • Ritual • Rite of Passage • Totemism Responsible for all 7 (read the textbook: 278-282) We will discuss each of these expression in varying degree of detail

  5. Spiritual beings • “Beings” • Ability to assume ______ • Respond to _____________ • Human origins with living or deceased people • Beings  spirit helpers, disease spirits, zoomorphic spirits

  6. Spiritual Beings • Monotheism • _____________________________________ • Polytheism • ________________________________ • Animism • ________________________________________; frequently associated with natural objects

  7. Spiritual begins Animism - Examples • Inuit • All things happens through the ______________________ • Animals share the same ________________

  8. Powers & Forces: Mana • Impersonal superhuman power • Sometimes transferable • Ex: ______________ • Why? • ______________ • Polynesians: All things believed to be endowed to a greater or lesser degree with sacred supernatural power • __________________ • Mana - ___________

  9. Powers & Forces: Mana

  10. Powers & Forces: Mangu • Performance of evil by humans believed to possess an innate, nonhuman power to do evil • Whether or not it is ________________________ • Ex: Azande • Mangu – ___________________________________ • Note: mangu is not unique to the Azande • 1. • 2.

  11. magic • Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific ends • 1. • 2. • Examples: • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4.

  12. Uncertainty, Anxiety, solace • Connected to magic & myth • Responsible for reading ‘Understanding Ourselves’ • Opening to chapter, page 276 • Be able to articulate how the Trobriand Islanders use magic when dealing with sailing expeditions

  13. Rituals • Repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activities • 1. • 2. • A. • Organized performance of behaviors intended to influence ________________

  14. Rituals • Belief that supernatural powers can make natural events occur & intervene in human affairs • Behaviors intended to influence spiritual powers • Performed cross-culturally, but for different reasons • Ex: ____________________ • Marks _______________________________________ • Births, initiations, confirmations, weddings, funerals

  15. Sunrise dance

  16. Assigned reading

  17. Revitalization Movements • Aim to create a new way of life to replace current conditions that are _______________ • Likely to occur in societies when these conditions coalesce • 1. • 2. • 3.

  18. Revitalization Movements • ______– prophet who taught that existing world would soon be destroyed & new crust of Earth would form • As new crust formed, buffalo would return • Abandon ways of the settler’s to live pure lives – _______________________________________- • _____________ not a component of Ghost Dance • Movement was negatively received by settlers & U.S. Army • ________________________________ • Lakota (Sioux) band, including ♀ and children

  19. Revitalization Movements