LGBT RIGHTS IN PAKISTAN By SadafMujeeb
What is LGBT? LGBT stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender. The term LGBT is intended to emphasize a diversity of "sexuality and gender identity-based cultures" and is sometimes used to refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual instead of exclusively to people who are homosexual, bisexual, or transgender. To recognize this inclusion, a popular variant adds the letterQfor those who identify as queer and are questioning their sexual identity (e.g., "LGBTQ" or "GLBTQ", recorded since 1996).
Lesbian: is a term most widely used in the English language to describe sexual and romantic desire between females Gay: is a term most widely used in the English language to describe sexual and romantic desire between males Bisexual: Bisexuality is sexual behavior or an orientation involving physical and/or romantic attraction to both males and females, especially with regard to men and women. Transgender: is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies to vary from culturally conventional gender roles. Queer: is an umbrella term for sexual minorities
HOMOPHOBIA • Negative attitudes and feelings • In a 1998 address, author, activist, • and civil rights leader Coretta Scott • King stated that "Homophobia is like • racism and anti-Semitism and other • forms of bigotry in that it seeks to • dehumanize a large group of people, • to deny their humanity, their dignity • and personhood."
“INSTITUTIONALIZED HOMOPHOBIA” • Institutionalized homophobia • refers to homophobia sponsored by • religion or the state. • Religion • State
SEXUAL DIVERSITY IN OTHER SPECIES Homosexual behavior has been observed in close to 1,500 species, ranging from primates to gut worms, and is well documented for 500 of them.
PROBLEMS FACED BY RESEARCHERS STUDYING SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN ANIMALS Reasons why the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not 'officially' observed in animals until recently. Georgetown University biologist Janet Mann states…
Selected Species That Display Homosexual Behavior An estimated one-quarter of allBlack Swans pairings are homosexual. More of their cygnets survive to adulthood than those of different-sex pairs, due to their superior ability to defend large portions of land.
Mallards form male-female pairs only until the female lays eggs, at which time the male leaves the female. Mallards have rates of male-male sexual activity that are unusually high for birds, in some cases, as high as 19% of all pairs in a population.
The Bonobo is a fully bisexual species.
Both male and female lions have been seen to interact homosexually. • Pairings between females are held to be fairly common in captivity but have not been observed in the wild.
LGBT RIGHTS AND PSYCHOLOGY
APA’s STANCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS The Vision statement of the American Psychological Association clearly states that their organization aims to be an effective champion of the application of psychology to promote : human rights, health, well being and dignity of the people.
“Is Homosexuality A Mental Disorder?” • “No. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual orientations are not disorders. Research has found no inherent association between any of these sexual orientations and psychopathology. Both heterosexual behavior and homosexual behavior are normal aspects of human sexuality.” (http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx)
What Causes a Person to Have a Particular Sexual Orientation? “There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, gay, or lesbian orientation. Although much research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation is determined by any particular factor or factors. Many think that nature and nurture both play complex roles; most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation.”
What About TherapyIntended ToChange Sexual Orientation From Gay to Straight? “All major national mental health organizations have officially expressed concerns about therapies promoted to modify sexual orientation. To date, there has been no scientifically adequate research to show that therapy aimed at changing sexual orientation is safe or effective. Furthermore, it seems likely that the promotion of change therapies reinforces stereotypes and contributes to a negative climate forlesbian, gay, and bisexualpersons. This appears to be especially likely for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals who grow up in more conservative religious settings.”
Abuse, Harassment, and discrimination due to ignorance towards LGB people = Emotional Stress, Pressure and Depression = Plays a key role in a person's desire to change his or her sexuality.
EFFECTS OF HOMOPHOBIA ON THE LGBT MINORITY Some effects of homophobia on people who are not heterosexual include: • Low self esteem • Depression & Suicide • Alcoholism • Violence; physical, emotional, verbal • Loneliness, Isolation, Rejection & Exclusion • Homelessness
EFFECTS OF HOMOPHOBIA ON THE SOCIETY 1. Rigid gender-based roles that inhibit creativity and self-expression. Homophobic conditioning 3. Homophobia inhibits one's ability to form close, intimate relationships with members of one's own sex.
Restricts communication 5. Societal homophobia Premature sexual involvement 7. Homosexuality and sex phobia.
8. Is used to stigmatize and target people who are perceived as gay, lesbian or bisexual. 9. Prevents Society from accepting the benefits offered by sexual minorities to all facets of society. 10. Diverts energy from more constructive endeavors. 11. Inhibits appreciation of other types of diversity
LGBT RIGHTS AND RELIGION
The relationship between religion and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
More liberal movements within these religions often tend to stress logic, reason, and personal experience. • Homosexuality is natural.
The liberal-conservative divide.(Taken from www.relgioustolerance.org, Ontario consultants on Religious Tolerance) • International Lesbian and Gay Association ILGA statistics.
Diverse perspectives on homosexuality exist amongst new liberated Muslims, ranging from condemnation through to the Muslim Canadian Congress's welcome for legislation redefining marriage to include same-sex partners. • Views of Islamic scholars on different interpretations of Qur’anic Arabic.
CURRENT WORLD WIDE VIEW OF LGBTRIGHTS • A new era of the gay rights movement began in the 1980swith the emergence of AIDS • Less confrontational terms that attempt to reunite the interests of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and trans people also became prominent, including various acronyms like LGBT, LGBTQ, and LGBTI, where the Q and I stand for Questioning and Intersex respectively.
Pro-gay Philippinesorganized the first Gay Pride march in Asia on June 26, 1994. • In countries like Pakistan, LGBT organizations remain illegal and transsexual, transgender and homosexual activists face extreme opposition from the state. • The 1990s also saw the emergence of many LGBT youth movements and organizations such as LGBT youth centers, Gay-straight alliances in high schools and youth specific activism such as the National Day of Silence.
In 2010 in the U.S. an ad campaign was launched to inform people not to use the term "that's so gay" to mean "that's so stupid", claiming that it is offensive. • On 11 June 2010, Iceland became the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage through a unanimous vote: 49-0. • On July 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America to legalize same-sex marriage. • On December 18, 2010, the 1993 law forbidding homosexual people from serving openly in the United States military, was repealed.
The Netherlands was the first country to allow same-sex marriage, in 2001. • Same-sex marriages are also legal in Sweden, Argentina, Iceland, Belgium, Canada, Norway, South Africa, Spain, and Portugal, along with 7 states in the United States: Massachusetts, Iowa, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and New York, as well as the District of Columbia. • On 13 December 2008, UN declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity was adopted by United Nations General Assembly. • On 22 October 2009, the assembly of the Church of Sweden, voted strongly in favor of giving its blessing to homosexual couples, including the use of the term marriage, ("matrimony"). The new law was introduced on November 1, 2009 and is the first case in the world.
LGBT RIGHTS IN PAKISTAN • Intolerant social behavior in Pakistan. • The current criminal ban on homosexuality • Pakistan does not have civil rights laws to prohibit discrimination.
TRANSGENDER COMMUNITY • The Hijra Community refers to male-to-female transgender people and effeminate homosexuals. Some of them undergo ritual castration, but the majority do not. • Sources of income for the members of this community.
PRIDE SYMBOL • A common symbol for the transgender • community is the transgender pride flag, • which was designed by Monica Helms, and • was first shown at a pride parade in • Phoenix, Arizona, United States in 2000. Monica describes the meaning of the flag • according to their colour as follows: • Light blue • Pink • White correct. This symbolizes us trying to find correctness in our own lives find correctness in our own lives
GENDER INTERACTIVE ALLIANCE (GIA) Gender Interactive Alliance (GIA), founded in 2009, works for the rights of and social justice for transgender people in Pakistan.
The GIA mission includes; social and economic rehabilitation, alternative employment, social acceptance, protection from sexual, emotional, physical and mental harassment, recognition as equal members and participants of society, legal acceptance, equality in access to education and healthcare, and address stigmas associated with transgender people.
Harvey Bernard Milk (May 22, 1930 – November 27, 1978) was an American politician who became the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors.
IN PAKISTAN • In April 2003, a UN vote on homosexual human rights was derailed due to amendments made by Muslim countries including Pakistan. • The amendments removed all references to discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, rendering the resolution meaningless • The resolution was sponsored by Brazil with support from 19 of the 53 member countries of the UN Human Rights Commission. It called on member states to promote and protect the human rights "of all persons, regardless of their sexual orientation".
"They say homosexuality does not exist in Pakistan and that if it does it must be the corrupt effect of these degenerate Western infidels! And yet they admire and work hard to achieve most other things from the West…” According to ILGA, Pakistan is one of only 7 countries today still retaining capital punishment for homosexuality.
HinaJilani, advocate of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and a human-rights activist talks about the ambiguity of the following law that has not been reviewed or amended since 1860,Under section 377 of the PCC, whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which [shall not be less than two years nor more than] 10 years, and shall also be liable to a fine.
"People here are not ready to talk about homosexuality so they are certainly not ready to talk about gay rights," he said in a matter of fact manner. "They tell me it's a sin to be gay. But the real sin is not being allowed to be who I am.“ (Tariq, Express Tribune Blog) “My mother refused to believe me, even though I think she always suspected it. To this day she keeps trying to fix me up with girls in order to ‘cure’ me. All my brother said was that homosexuals are pedophiles and that he will never let his kids near me,” reveals Manto, saying that just because he’s gay doesn’t mean he is promiscuous… or a pervert. (NawazMunto, Express Tribune Blog)
Pakistan's Supreme Court issued a ruling on November 14, 2011 ordering the country's election commission to collect data from the transgender community and register them as voters.The move has paved the way for Pakistan's minority community of transgender women, estimated to number 500,000, to vote in next year's general elections and nominate their own candidates for parliament.
THE WAY THINGS SHOULD BE Concerns regarding state and religion endorsed intolerance against fellow human beings (LGBT community)
HELPFUL RESPONSES OF A THERAPIST ACCORDING TO APA “Helping that person actively cope with social prejudices against homosexuality” “Successfully resolve issues associated with and resulting from internal conflicts, and actively lead a happy and satisfying life.”
“Mental health professional organizations call on their members to respect a person's (client's) right to self determination; be sensitive to the client'srace, culture, ethnicity, age, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, socioeconomic status, language, and disability status when working with that client; and eliminate their own biases based on these factors.”
Be a friend to GLBTQ youth or to other GLBTQ youth. When you hear homophobic or transphobic comments, calmly assert your belief in everyone's right to be treated with dignity and respect. Write a letter to the editor of your hometown and/or school newspaper. Ask for a panel discussion on GLBTQ issues. Create and distribute a list of helpful resources for GLBTQ youth.
Public campaignsare a way to reach a large number of people with messages challenging homophobia. Schools have an important part to play in challenging homophobia. Educating young people about LGBT issues is fundamental to overcoming widely accepted prejudice. Community based organizations play an important role in addressing homophobia. Repealing lawsthat ban homosexuality would reduce discrimination against LGBT people