Геополитичка теорија Халфорда Мекиндера
Мекиндерова геополитика у теорији и пракси после Другог светског рата
Забелешка Хари Трумана о првој употреби атомске бомбе
Совјетско присуство у Европи после Другог светског рата
Џорџ Кенан и “доктрина обуздавања” СССР
“Дуги телеграм” Џорџа Кенана (22. фебруар 1946)
Черчилов говор на Уиверзитету Фултон у Мисурију (5. март 1946)
Хари Труман потписује Закон о обнови Европе (ЕРA – 3. април 1948)
Државни удар у Чехословачкој (фебруар 1948)
Резолуција Информбироа против Југославије (28. јун 1948)
Блокада Берлина 1948. године (24. јун 1948. – 11. Мај 1949)
Бриселски уговор (17. март 1948) • Белгија • Француска • Луксембург • Холандија • Велика Британија
Совјетски нуклеарни пројект: Андреј Сахаров и Игор Курчатов
Шпијунски рат • Cambridge spies: sir Anthony Blunt, Donald Maclean, Guy Burges and KimPhilby
Амерички председник Хари Труман потписује Вашингтонски уговор
НАТО пакт • Бриселски пакт • САД • Канада • Португалија • Италија • Норвешка • Данска • Исланд
“Врући рат” у Азији(25. jun 1950 – 27. jul 1953)
Прво проширење НАТО: Грчка и Турска (22. октобар 1951)
Пријем Западне Немачке у НАТО (6. мај 1955)
Варшавски пакт • Албанија • Бугарска • Чехословачка • Мађарска • Пољска • Румунија • СССР • ДР Немачка (1956)
Доктрина “обуздавања” у пракси САД после Другог светског рата
Идеје о уједињењу Европе • Tomaš Garig Masarik (1850 – 1937), predsednik Čehoslovačke 1918-1935, u spisu Nova Evropa opravdava pravo nacija na samoopredeljenje – suprotno hegemonizmu u Evropi • Rihard Kudenhof Kalergi u “Panevropskom manifestu” zalaže se za povezivanje svih evropskih zemalja u savez • Evropska unija se prvi pominje u zvanično uobličenom “Memorandumu” koga je uputio francuski ministar spoljnih poslova Aristid Brijan 17. maja 1930. Društvu naroda i u kome predlaže osnivanje Evropske unije kao federalnog saveza naroda Evrope • Nacionalističko shvatanje Evrope preovladalo je u Nemačkoj dolaskom Hitlera na vlast 1933. • Hitler i Ribentrop su govorili o viziji nove Evrope 1943-osnivanju Saveza evropskih država, krijući vojni poraz.
Европска интеграција послеДругог светског рата • Prvi koraci ka integraciji Zapadne Evrope učinjeni su govorom Vinstona Čerčila na Univerzitetu u Cirihu 19. IX 1946: predložio je francusko-nemačko ujedinjenje i osnivanje “Sjedinjenih evropskih država” • Godine 1947. osnovana je Organizacija za evropsku ekonomsku saradnju (OEEC) da bi među saveznicima rasporedila američku pomoć u skladu sa Maršalovim planom. • Države članice OEEC međusobno su ukinule trgovinske kontigente i usaglašavale su trgovinsku politiku • Godine 1961. OEEC menja ime u Organizacija za ekonomsku saradnju i razvoj (OECD).
Савет Европе • In his famous speech at the University of Zurich on 19 September 1946, Sir Winston Churchill called for a United States of Europe and the creation of a Council of Europe. He had spoken of a Council of Europe as early as 1943 in a broadcast to the nation. The future structure of the Council of Europe was discussed at a specific congress of several hundred leading politicians, government representatives and civil society in The Hague, Netherlands in 1948. There were two schools of thought competing: some favoured a classical international organisation with representatives of governments, while others preferred a political forum with parliamentarians. Both approaches were finally combined through the creation of the Committee of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly under the Statute of the Council of Europe. This dual intergovernmental and inter-parliamentary structure was later copied for the European Communities, NATO and the OSCE. • The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London. The Treaty of London or the Statute of the Council of Europe was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Many states followed, especially after the democratic transitions in central and eastern Europe during the early 1990s, and the Council of Europe now integrates nearly all states of Europe.
Западноевропска унија • The Treaty of Brussels was signed by the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands on 17 March 1948. It was a mutual intergovernmental self defence treaty which also promoted economic, cultural and social collaboration. As a result of the failure of the European Defence Community on 23 October 1954 the WEU was established by the Paris Agreements with the incorporation of the then West Germany and Italy. The signatories of the Paris Agreements clearly stated their three main objectives in the preamble to the modified Brussels Treaty: • To create in Western Europe a firm basis for European economic recovery; • To afford assistance to each other in resisting any policy of aggression; • To promote the unity and encourage the progressive integration of Europe. • The defence efforts resulting from the Brussels Treaty took form as the Western Union Defence Organisation. Members • Associate members • Observers • Associate partners
Европска интеграција послеДругог светског рата • UNIJA BENELUKSA nastalala je 1. januara 1948. kao carinska unija da bi prerasla u ekonomsku uniju • Koordinacioni odbor za stvaranje Ujedinjene Evrope saziva 1948. Haški Kongres koji predlaže da se stvori Ujedinjena Evropa i osnuje Savet Evrope • Briselskim ugovorom iz marta 1948. stvorena Zapadnoevropska unija (WEU) između: V.Brit, Franc, Zap. Nemačke, Italije i zemalja Beneluksa. Stvaranjem NATO 1949. WEU je prevaziđena • Šumanova deklaracija: Robert Šuman, ministar inostr. poslova Francuske, u govoru od 9. maja 1950. predlaže da se objedini francusko-nemačka proizvodnja uglja i čelika pod zajedničkom vlašću • Pariski sporazum 18. 04. 1951 (Evropska zajednica za ugalj i čelik) potpisuju: Zap. Nemačka, Francuska, Italija i zemlje Beneluksa (“šestorica”)
Настанак европских заједница • Европска заједница за угаљ и челик (ECSC) – створена је 18. априла 1951. године који су потписале Француска, Немачка Италија и земље Бенелукса а важност му је истекла 23. јула 2002. године. • Европска заједница за атомску енергију (ЕАЕС или EUROATOM) створена је 25. марта 1957. године Римским уговорима, учла је у састав Европских заједница 1967. године али је наставила да постоји као независна организација. • Европска економска заједница (ЕЕС) створена је Римским уговорима 25. марта 1957. године који су потписале Француска, Белгија, Немачка, Италија, Луксембург и Холандија.
Шуманов план • Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity. The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany. Any action taken must in the first place concern these two countries. With this aim in view, the French Government proposes that action be taken immediately on one limited but decisive point.It proposes that Franco-German production of coal and steel as a whole be placed under a common High Authority, within the framework of an organization open to the participation of the other countries of Europe. The pooling of coal and steel production should immediately provide for the setting up of common foundations for economic development as a first step in the federation of Europe, and will change the destinies of those regions which have long been devoted to the manufacture of munitions of war, of which they have been the most constant victims. • – Robert Schuman, extract from 9 May declaration
9. Мај 1950. године: Робер Шуман излаже свој план интеграције индустрије угља и челика(данас се овај дан слави као рођендан ЕУ)
Чланице Европске заједнице за угаљ и челик
Ефекти Шумановог плана • The Schuman Declaration marked the true beginning of post-World War II Franco-German cooperation and the re-integration of West Germany into Western Europe. Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of West Germany, said of the declaration, "That's our breakthrough." The ECSC was created by the Treaty of Paris (1951) and on 18 April1951, the leaders of the six member countries (including Schuman) signed a European Declaration stating that 'the signing of this Treaty ... marked the true foundation of an organised Europe.' • The resulting ECSC introduced a common, single steel and coal market, with freely set market prices, and without import/export duties or subsidies. The success of ECSC led to further steps, foreseen by Schuman, being taken with the creation of the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community which merged in the European Communities the 1960s. The core of the proposal, the High Authority, was replaced by the European Commission and further bodies and areas of activities were created leading to the creation of the European Union in 1993. • The Declaration is viewed as one of the main founding events of the EU. In 1985, during Jacques Delors tenure as President of the European Commission, the leaders of the European Council met in Milan to decide upon 'national' symbols for the Community. They adopted those chosen by the Council of Europe previously but they changed the date of Europe Day to 9 May, in commemoration of the Schuman Declaration (the day is now also known as Schuman Day).
In 1951, the Treaty of Paris was signed, creating the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). This was an international community based on supranationalism and international law, designed to help the economy of Europe and prevent future war by integrating its members together. • In the aim of creating a federal Europe two further communities were proposed: a European Defence Community (EDC) and a European Political Community (EPC). While the treaty for the latter was being drawn up by the Common Assembly, the ECSC parliamentary chamber, the EDC was rejected by the French Parliament. PresidentJean Monnet, a leading figure behind the communities, resigned from the High Authority in protest and began work on alternative communities, based on economic integration rather than political integration. After the Messina Conference in 1955, Paul Henri Spaak was given the task to prepare a report on the idea of a customs union. The so-called Spaak Report of the Spaak Committee formed the cornerstone of the intergovernmental negotiations at Val Duchesse castle in 1956. Together with the Ohlin Report the Spaak Report would provide the basis for the Treaty of Rome. • In 1956, Paul Henri Spaak lead the Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom at the Val Duchesse castle, which prepared for the Treaty of Rome in 1957. The conference led to the signature, on 25 March 1957, of the Treaty of Rome establishing a European Economic Community.
Европска политичка заједница“План Плевен” • The European Defense Community (EDC) was a plan proposed in 1950 by René Pleven, the French President of the Council (name of Prime Ministers till 1958), in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. The intention was to form a pan-European defense force as an alternative to Germany's proposed accession to NATO, meant to harness its military potential in case of conflict with the Soviet bloc. The EDC was to include West Germany, France, Italy, and the Benelux countries. A treaty was signed on 27 May1952, but the plan never went into effect. • The plan collapsed when it failed to obtain ratification in the French Parliament. There were Gaullist fears that the EDC threatened France's national sovereignty, constitutional concerns about the indivisibility of the French Republic, and fears about Germany's remilitarization. Communists opposed a plan tying France to the capitalist USA and setting it in opposition to the Communist bloc. Other legislators worried about the absence of the United Kingdom. The EDC went for ratification in the French National Assembly on 30 August1954, and failed by a vote of 264-319 (Judt, 2005:245). By this time, concerns about an impending World War III faded as Stalin and the Korean War died away. Concomitant to these fears were a severe disjuncture between the original Pleven Plan of 1950 and the one defeated in 1954. Divergences included military integration at the division rather than battalion level and a change in the command structure putting the NATO Supreme Commander in charge of EDC operational capabilities. Then Prime-Minister, Pierre Mendès-France attempted to placate the treaty's detractors by attempting to ratify additional protocols with the other signatory states. These included the sole integration of covering forces, or in other words, those deployed within Germany, as well as the implementation of greater national autonomy in regard to budgetary and other administrative questions. Great Britain approved of the plan in principle, but agreed to join only if the supranational element was decreased. • The EDC would have established a pan-European military, divided into national components. In this military, the French, Italian, Belgium, Dutch and Luxembourg components would report to their national governments, whereas the German component would report to the EDC. This was due to the fear of a return of German militarism, so it was desired that the German government would not have control over the German military. However, in the event of its rejection, it was agreed to let the German government control its own military in any case (something which the treaty would not have provided). The EDC also provided for centralised military procurement. The EDC would have had a common budget, arms and institutions. • After the failed ratification in the French National Assembly, the EC member states tried to create foreign policy cooperation in de De Gaulle-sponsored Fouchet Plans (1959-1962). European foreign policy was finally established during the third attempt with European Political Cooperation (EPC) (1970). This became the predecessor of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). • Today, the Western European Union, the European Union and NATO all carry out some of the functions which was envisaged for the EDC, although none approach the degree of supranational military control that the EDC would have provided for.
Европска политичка заједница • The European Political Community (EPC) was proposed in 1952 as a combination of the existing European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the proposed European Defence Community (EDC). The European Political Community must not be mistaken with European Political Cooperation (1970-1993). • A draft EPC treaty, as drawn up by the ECSC assembly (now the European Parliament), would have seen a directly elected assembly ("the Peoples’ Chamber"), a senate appointed by national parliaments and a supranational executive accountable to the parliament. • The European Political Community project failed in 1954 when it became clear that the European Defence Community would not be ratified by the French national assembly, which feared that the project entailed an unacceptable loss of national sovereignty. As a result, the European Political Community idea had to be abandoned