Sustainable Sweden. H.E. Ingrid Iremark Ambassador of Sweden to Canada Earth Day, 22 April 2008 Ottawa. Sweden – general facts. Inhabitants: 9,0 million Area: 450 000 km² Capital: Stockholm Major cities: Göteborg, Malmö Language: Swedish
Sustainable Sweden H.E. Ingrid Iremark Ambassador of Sweden to Canada Earth Day, 22 April 2008 Ottawa
Sweden – general facts • Inhabitants: 9,0 million • Area: 450 000 km² • Capital: Stockholm • Major cities: Göteborg, Malmö • Language: Swedish • Form of government: Parliamentary democracy • Government: 4-party majority coalition since October 2006 (Centre-Right)
Arctic circle Churchill, Manitoba Ottawa, Ontario Sweden is a Northern country…
Canada and Sweden • Similarly to Canada, Sweden’s primary industries, such as wood, paper, steel and manufactured products, have been important in the development of the country’s economy. • Like Canada, Sweden is a technically well-advanced nation with a highly skilled work force. • Both countries are in the forefront of many high-tech industries, such as telecom and biotechnology.
How did it start? • UN Conference on the Environment in Stockholm 1972 • Oil crisis 1973 • Nuclear power referendum 1980
1999 – turn of the Millennium The Generation Goal “The overall aim isto hand over to the next generation a society in which the major environmental problems have been solved.” The Swedish Parliament (Riksdagen) 1999 Unanimous decision
The basic principle is to integrate… - ecological - socialand - economic …sustainability
Sweden’s environment policy • Based on sixteen environmental quality objectives for different areas • Adopted by the Swedish Parliament in 1999 and confirmed in 2005
The Environmental Quality Objectives Reduced Climate Impact Clean Air Natural Acidification Only A Non-Toxic Environment A Protective Ozone Layer A Safe Radiation Environment Zero Eutrophication Flourishing Lakes and Streams Good-Quality Groundwater A Balanced Marine Environment, Flourishing Coastal Areas and Archipelagos Thriving Wetlands Sustainable Forests A Varied Agricultural Landscape A Magnificent Mountain Landscape A Good Built Environment A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life
A continuous process Strategy Measures Objectives Adjustments Monitoring Evaluation
Development of Sweden’s climate strategy • 1988 The first climate policy objective: carbon dioxide emissions • 1991 Addition: all greenhouse gases • 1993 A national climate strategy in line with the objectives of the Climate Convention • 2002 Ratifies The Kyoto Protocol • 2002 The current Swedish climate policy was adopted • 2008 Climate Bill 2008, will be presented in Fall of 2008
Climate issues - Sweden & Canada Sources: OECD, Environment Canada and IEA, data are from 2002-2004, *=2006
Energy taxes in Sweden • 1991 Sweden introduced a carbon dioxide tax and sulphur tax • 2001 The great green tax reform was introduced • 2005 A new green tax reform is focusing on the transport sector
Estimated emissions in Sweden - with and without CO2 tax Difference of app. 18%
Sweden’s Prime Minister, Fredrik Reinfeldt in Tokyo 17 April 2008 • …it is possible to combine economic development with a stabilization – and decrease – of emissions. • I’m not especially fond of taxes. But I’m convinced that they can make an important difference if you want to promote one type of behavior over another. • New green technology is necessary, but it will not be enough. • …international action is necessary.
Steady increase in GDP of about 44% (1990-2006) Industrial production increased by more than 50% Average purchasing power grew by more than 15% GHG emissions decreased by 8,7% (1990-2006) Sweden’s decoupling of emissions and growth Graph shows only the period 1990 - 2003 Source: Sweden’s Ministry for the Environment
Actions and initiatives in climate work • 1 billion SEK (171 million CAD) to climate and energy initiatives • 1 billion SEK for climate and environmental research • Increased energy and climate taxes by 3 billion SEK (514 million CAD) in Budget Bill 2008 • Share of “green” cars in public procurement - and lease - to increase from 75 to 85%. • Share of “green” emergency vehicles (ambulances, fire trucks, police cruisers etc) should increase to a minimum of 25%.
Climate and Energy within the EU • Sweden plays an active role in the EU’s climate and energy policies. • EU will reduce emissions by 20% by 2020 (compared to 1990).
Environment rankings Climate Change Performance Index, ranking 56 countries Environmental Performance Index, ranking 149 countries Newsweek Index of Environmental Performance, ranking 134 countries Germanwatch 2007 Newsweek, 14 April 2008 Yale University & Columbia University 2008
The Government Commission on Sustainable Development • Focus on Climate Change • Promote efforts across sectors, adopting an international perspective • Cooperation for climate initiatives between business, politics and science, as illustrated by some of its members: - Fredrik Reinfeldt, Prime Minister, Chair - Leif Johansson, CEO & President of Volvo (Buses/truck company) - Lars G Josefsson, CEO & President of Vattenfall (Hydro/energy company) -Annika Helker Lundström, CEO of the Swedish Recycling Industries' Association
For further information • Embassy of Sweden, Ottawa: www.swedishembassy.ca • Sweden’s portal: www.sweden.se • Government of Sweden: www.sweden.gov.se • Swedish Environmental Protection Agency: www.naturvardsverket.se • Swedish Environmental Objectives Portal: www.miljomal.nu