Gustaf Oscar Montelius (1843-1921), Swedish archaeologists who played a role in bringing about this shift. Oriented in Thomsen’s and Worsaae’s approaches.
Gustaf Oscar Montelius (1843-1921), Swedish archaeologists who played a role in bringing about this shift.
Montelius drew parallels between the evolution of material culture and biological organisms. His thinking more influenced by Scandinavian archaeologists than by Darwin. Following Enlightenment philosophers, Montelius believed humans used the power of reason to develop more effective ways of coping with nature.
The culture core/periphery is also a central concept in Boasian anthropology. Boas also made the age/area assumption that is more widely distributed traits were probably older than those with more restricted territories.
A growing interest in ethnicity stimulated an increasing application of the concept of the archaeological culture.
There is no generally accepted definition of civil society. The London School of Economics Centre for Civil Society's working definition is one illustrative example:
19th C. evolutionists used the term culture in the singular. It referred to knowledge and belief of humanity as transmitted by teaching and imitation, it was believed to grow more complex over time.
OlofRygh, 1866, Norwegian archaeologist was interpreting specific styles of projectile points as representing a particular “culture and people”. BY 1871, he discussed the existence of two “Stone Age cultures” and “Stone Age peoples” from Norway.
GustafKossinna (1858-1931), German patriot and argued that archaeology was the most national of all sciences.
Miles Burkitt (1921) and Cyril Fox (1923) employ the use of the term culture.
In “The Dawn…”, Childe borrowed from Kossinna the basic concept of archaeological culture and the identification of these cultures through remains of prehistoric people. Childe did not incorporate the racist underpinnings of Kossinna’s work.