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6TH Annual Let’s Talk R.A.C.E. Conference: Language, Culture and Education February 26, 2005 Carolina Center for Educational Excellence at Smith Middle School, Chapel Hill, NC. Enrique G. Murillo, Jr., Ph.D California State University, San Bernardino.

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6TH Annual Let’s Talk R.A.C.E. Conference: Language, Culture and Education February 26, 2005 Carolina Center for Educational Excellence at Smith Middle School, Chapel Hill, NC

Enrique G. Murillo, Jr., Ph.D

California State University, San Bernardino

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6TH Annual Let’s Talk R.A.C.E. Conference: Language, Culture and Education February 26, 2005 Carolina Center for Educational Excellence at Smith Middle School, Chapel Hill, NC

Enrique G. Murillo, Jr., Ph.D

California State University, San Bernardino

WHO AM I?

Chicano/Indigena Bilingual/BiCultural/Biliterate

Parent Former School Teacher (LAUSD)

Community Organizer Researcher/Ethnographer

Consultant (LACOE Professional Expert)

Teacher-Educator (CSUSB)

Editor (Journal of Latinos and Education)

slide3
"Invest in Pesos now, to be cashed in Dollars later": pedagogical foundations for English Language Learners

=

some key starting points of general awareness
SOME KEY STARTING POINTS OF GENERAL AWARENESS:
  • 1. In January 2003, Latinos were recognized, numerically, as the largest minority group in the U.S.
  • 2. As of 1998, Latino children, numerically, have already become the largest minority student demographic in U.S. public schools
some key starting points of general awareness1
SOME KEY STARTING POINTS OF GENERAL AWARENESS:
  • 3. Latino students, in general are the most under-educated major segment of the U.S. population, and are more than twice as likely to be undereducated than all groups combined
some key starting points of general awareness2
SOME KEY STARTING POINTS OF GENERAL AWARENESS:
  • 4. Latino students in particular, have the highest dropout (“pushout”) rate, score among the lowest on achievement tests, and have low college enrollment rates
some key starting points of general awareness3
SOME KEY STARTING POINTS OF GENERAL AWARENESS:
  • 5. NC. has the fastest growing Mexican population in the nation, and is the third-fastest growing state in terms of its Latino population

(a 394 percent increase

during the past ten years)

some key starting points of general awareness4
SOME KEY STARTING POINTS OF GENERAL AWARENESS:
  • 6. N.C. has the highest percentage of teen Latinos who have quit school or bypassed it altogether – more than any other state in the nation
some key starting points of general awareness5
SOME KEY STARTING POINTS OF GENERAL AWARENESS:
  • 7. Nearly 47 percent of N.C. Latinos between ages 16 and 19 are not enrolled in school and lack a high school diploma
slide10

What is the “real problem?”

Language ???Cultural ???

Social ???

Motivational ???Parents ???

The students ???The Schools ???

The Teachers ???

What “problem(s)" are we

REALLY talking about ???

we can t say with absolute certainty what are the causes of the latino achievement gap
We can’t say with absolute certainty what are the causes of the Latino Achievement Gap!
  • But we know some likely contributors, from the research literature
  • Note: NOT everything is a

function of the “Language Gap”

latino students attend schools
LATINO STUDENTS ATTEND SCHOOLS:
  • with fewer resources, staffing and programs
  • with a high mobility rate of both students and teachers
  • that are located in communities with high poverty rates
  • that are racially segregated (with academically segregated tracks)
  • with less-qualified teachers
  • with more and harsher discipline
  • with lowered expectations for student achievement, and
  • with mismatches between school and home culture
what areas of children s lives do we have any direct influence over
What areas of children’s lives do we have any direct influence over? :

Home Societal Economic Moral/Ethical Motivational

Curricular / Instructional Cognitive Affective Mind/Heart

HOW CAN WE TACKLE THE MISMATCHES BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME???

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AMONG THE TASKS TO HELP US TACKLE THE MISMATCHES BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME IN THE NC CONTEXT, WE NEED TO:
  • Learn about the cultural histories, traits, backgrounds and diversity of and among Latinos
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AMONG THE TASKS TO HELP US TACKLE THE MISMATCHES BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME IN THE NC CONTEXT, WE NEED TO:
  • Build teacher training programs that include a strong student-home culture component so teachers are not only sympathetic and sensitive to a different culture but also appreciative of students' backgrounds and willing to structure the school experience to be compatible with students
slide16
AMONG THE TASKS TO HELP US TACKLE THE MISMATCHES BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME IN THE NC CONTEXT, WE NEED TO:
  • Create qualified teachers that have specialized knowledge and skills in language acquisition, biliteracy, and cross-cultural learning
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AMONG THE TASKS TO HELP US TACKLE THE MISMATCHES BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME IN THE NC CONTEXT, WE NEED TO:
  • Research the local community and its “social reception,” and the impact of this on the effectiveness of schools and the learning of children in classrooms
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AMONG THE TASKS TO HELP US TACKLE THE MISMATCHES BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME IN THE NC CONTEXT, WE NEED TO:
  • Combat the deficit views of Latino students and parents; and understand that the incorporation of students' language, culture, and experiential knowledge should not conflict with teachers' responsibility for providing students with particular academic content knowledge and learning skills; and
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AMONG THE TASKS TO HELP US TACKLE THE MISMATCHES BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME IN THE NC CONTEXT, WE NEED TO:
  • Create meaningful and trusting relationships with Latino parents and extended family
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* special linguistic circumstances

of relevance to CLD students

– issues of

dialect

bilingualism,

and second-language acquisition

CLD = Culturally and Linguistically Diverse

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* special linguistic circumstances

of relevance to CLD students

– issues of

dialect

bilingualism,

and second-language acquisition

CLD = Culturally and Linguistically Diverse

spanish dominant
Spanish-Dominant

Range of

CURRICULAR AND INSTRUCTIONAL Programs (used with ELLs)

Bilingual Education(Use of L1 & L2 for Instruction)

English as a Second Language (ESL) (Formal Instruction in the English Language)

Compensatory/Remedial Education, Title I

(To Remediate “Deficiencies”)

Sheltered English Immersion (SEI) (e.g. CA’s Proposition 227, English-Only)

slide23
SUBTRACTIVE
  • Leaves local knowledge and language at the schoolhouse door
  • Causes accelerated language erosion and loss
  • Replaces primary language and culture with the English language and culture
  • CLD students fail to attain academic competence in English while at the same time losing knowledge of their primary languages and cultures
  • Primary culture carries low social status and can negatively influence the overall development and personality of the student

ADDITIVE

  • Creates the conditions for students to succeed in their schoolwork
  • Teaches English language and culture in addition to the native language and culture
  • CLD students acquire their second language without any loss of their primary language
  • Maintains the first language and adds the second, but also values and enhances both cultures
  • Students who continue to develop cognitively in their primary language and develop age-appropriate proficiency in both first and second language can outscore monolinguals on school tests
  • Bilingualism and Biculturalism carry high social status and positively affect the child's total development

SUBTRACTIVE VS.

ADDITIVE

Theoretical Framework

* Implementation and Assessment of Programs

spanish dominant1
Spanish-Dominant

What is the relationship of

L1 to L2

in the education of

CLD students?

  • L1 = first language
  • L2 = second language
slide26

Spanish

English

By Dr. Jim Cummins

The "Dual Iceberg" Representation of Bilingual Proficiency

(one bank of knowledge)

CUP

slide28

Spanish

English

Academic Spanish = Academic English

Conversational English ≠ Academic English

CUP

slide29

* special linguistic circumstances

of relevance to CLD students

– issues of

dialect

bilingualism,

and second-language acquisition

CLD = Culturally and Linguistically Diverse

english dominant
English-Dominant

What is Chicano English?

  • A dynamic variety of English spoken on a scale/continuum of English/Spanish, ranging from bilingual/biliterate to monolingual English
english dominant1
English-Dominant

What is Chicano English?

  • A form of spoken English that is considered out of the mainstream (“non-standard”); yet the Chicano speakers themselves are often considered of even “classified” as native-English speakers
english dominant2
English-Dominant

What is Chicano English?

  • Scholarship and discussion are extremely limited! Most of what has been theorized and researched has been about the social, cultural and linguistic factors in second language acquisition (Fought, 1999 and Santa Ana, 1996)
english dominant3
English-Dominant

What is Chicano English?

  • While ebonics is often described as a “separate” language with rules that govern its use, the same argument has not been made about this language form
english dominant4
English-Dominant

What is Chicano English?

  • Initial analysis (by Castañeda and Ulanoff, 2004) suggests that English is spoken in ways that mirror the language structure of Spanish. The suggestion being that English is learned from native-Spanish speakers (the language structure is what’s transferred)
slide35

Spanish

English

In the absence of Spanish CALP and most often English CALP, the speaker of Chicano English borrows BICS, into their limited repertoire of English

CUP

conclusions
CONCLUSIONS

We bother to teach children to read in Spanish, though the obvious need may be to learn English, because learning theories demonstrate that it isn't conversational English(BICS) that leads to Academic English(CALP) but rather Academic Spanish(CALP) that leads to Academic English(CALP).

The best means to an academic road for an English Language Learner (ELL) is the students' native language.

conclusions1
CONCLUSIONS

Contrary to the false 2 balloon theory, a student learning his or her native language isn't just learning that language but all the literacy and academic skills that go with it.

These skills can transfer over to English, where studies prove that students achieve higher test scores and parents can continue later to reinforce the primary language.

conclusions2
CONCLUSIONS

Students hold only one book of knowledge or common underlying proficiency(CUP), to where if we combine comprehensible input(CI) in English with academic Spanish(CALP), the Spanish literacy merges with English literacy.

In end,

Comprehensible English Input + Native Language Academic Instruction- Best Suits the English Language Learner

conclusions3
CONCLUSIONS

Symbolically, if we invest money in pesos now,

they can be cashed in dollars later.

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El Fin - Gracias