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Respiratory System. Chapter 14. Respiratory System . Filters , warms, and humidifies the air we breathe Helps make speech and sound possible and helps with the sense of smell. Structure. Organs include: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Alveoli

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respiratory system1
Respiratory System
  • Filters, warms, and humidifies the air we breathe
  • Helps make speech and sound possible and helps with the sense of smell
structure
Structure
  • Organs include: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
  • Alveoli
    • thin-walled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
respiratory tracts
Respiratory Tracts

Upper Respiratory

Lower Respiratory

  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • “head cold”
  • Trachea
  • bronchial tree
  • The lungs
  • “chest cold”
respiratory mucosa
Respiratory Mucosa
  • covered with mucus and lines the tubes of the respiratory tree
  • mucus serves as an air purifier
  • more than 125mL of mucus is produced daily
  • cilia only beat in one direction – up
    • “smokers cough”
slide7
Nose

Nasal Cavity

Cilia

Mucus

Nostrils

respiration
Respiration
  • Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
  • Pulmonary ventilation
    • the process that moves air into and out of the lungs
  • External respiration
    • exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood
  • Internal respiration
    • exchange of gases between the blood and cells of the body
mechanics of breathing
Mechanics of Breathing

Inspiration

  • Moves air into the lungs
    • lungs expand and air rushes into them and down into the alveoli
  • The diaphragm contracts and flattens
    • reducing the air pressure in the lungs
    • drawing air into the lungs
mechanics of breathing1
Mechanics of Breathing

Expiration

  • Air moves out of the lungs
  • The diaphragm relaxes and moves back up
    • increasing the air pressure in the lungs
    • pushing air out of the lungs
volumes of air exchanged in pulmonary ventilation
Volumes of Air Exchanged in Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Tidal volume – normal volume of air into and out of the lungs(about 500mL)
  • Vital capacity – the largest amount of air that we breathe out in one expiration(about 4800 mL)
volumes of air exchanged in pulmonary ventilation1
Volumes of Air Exchanged in Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Expiratory reserve volume
    • the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the tidal volume
  • Inspiratory reserve volume
    • the amount of air that can be forcibly inspired over and above normal inspiration
  • Residual volume
    • the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration
regulation of respiration
Regulation of Respiration
  • Respiratory control centers in the medulla and pons of the brainstem
  • Cerebral cortex can influence respiration by modifying the rate at which neurons fire in the inspiratory and expiratory centers of the medulla – voluntarily speed up or slow down the breathing rate
  • Chemoreceptors and Pulmonary stretch receptors may also influence respiration
types of breathing
Types of Breathing
  • Eupnea – normal breathing
  • Hyper or Hypoventilation
  • Dyspnea – labored or difficult breathing
  • Apnea – breathing stops for a brief period
    • can result in respiratory arrest
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