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Contact Maneuvers. Overview. Introduction Takeoffs Approaches Traffic Patterns Emergency Procedures. Takeoffs. Hovering Flight Normal Maximum Performance Marginal Power. Hovering Flight. Per Task 1017, Army TC 1-211/23 FTS ATL Vertical ascent to hover altitude of 4 feet, +/-1 foot

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Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Introduction

  • Takeoffs

  • Approaches

  • Traffic Patterns

  • Emergency Procedures


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Takeoffs

  • Hovering Flight

  • Normal

  • Maximum Performance

  • Marginal Power


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Hovering Flight

  • Per Task 1017, Army TC 1-211/23 FTS ATL

    • Vertical ascent to hover altitude of 4 feet, +/-1 foot

    • Maintain heading +/- 10 degrees

    • Drift not to exceed 1 foot on hover takeoff, 2 feet while stationary, during turns, or moving forward, sideward, or rearward, no drift lateral or rearward on landing from hover

    • Turns flown with constant rate of turn not to exceed 90 degrees in 4 seconds


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Normal Takeoff

  • Aircraft exposure time in avoid area of height velocity diagram minimized

  • Takeoff may be started from the ground or hover

    • Maintain takeoff heading with pedals +/- 10 degrees (wing low method if necessary) below 50 ft.

    • Apply takeoff power 3 psi above hover power, maintain +/- 1 psi

    • Apply forward cyclic to attain 70 KIAS by 100’ AGL or as necessary to clear obstacles by 10’, maintain 70 KIAS +/- 10 in climb

    • Place aircraft in trim after climb established and clear barriers


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Marginal Power Takeoff

  • Takeoff accomplished from a hover/ground with hover power simulated max power available

    • Brief 50’ simulated obstacle and abort point

    • Maintain takeoff power of hover torque +/- 1 psi

    • Maintain takeoff heading +/- 10 degrees until clear barriers

    • Apply forward cyclic to accelerate forward from hover

    • Passing through ETL, enter and maintain climb to clear obstacles, maintain a/s at or above ETL (can accelerate to max R/C airspeed); do not allow a/s to drop below trans lift as critical settling to ground may occur

    • Upon passing 50’agl (simulated obstacle), accelerate w/o descending through 50 kts, the maneuver is terminated and increase power and airspeed to establish standard 70 KIAS climb, a/c in trim


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Maximum Performance Takeoff

  • Takeoff from ground or hover with OGE power available

    • Brief simulated 100’ obstacle and abort point

    • Maintain takeoff power (6 psi above hover for stagefield, as required for remote site) +/- 1 psi

    • Maintain takeoff heading +/- 10 degrees until clear obstacles

    • Establish slightly nose low attitude (40 K, skids level) in climb to safely clear obstacle by 10’, then accelerate to 70 KIAS without descending, a/c in trim

    • Upon reaching 70 KIAS, adjust power and attitude for normal climb

    • Maintain power setting until termination of maneuver; can use other pilot to call out power settings


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Approaches

  • Normal Approach

  • Steep Approach

  • Shallow Approach

  • Slide Landing

  • Approach to Touchdown


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Normal Approach

  • Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/70 KIAS , 30 degree apparent angle

    • At desired angle, lower collective to establish a descent, start gradual reduction of airspeed/groundspeed

    • Power required, aircraft attitude, approach speed will vary (different aircraft weights, density altitude, winds)

    • Rate of closure (brisk walk) controlled primarily by cyclic, adjust so ETL lost as aircraft enters ground effect (about 50 ft)

    • Coordinate collective and cyclic to maintain angle/decrease speed, wing low method to maintain groundtrack/alignment below 50 ft

    • Allow for smooth transition to zero groundspeed at 3-5 ft hover over landing spot (aim for nose centered over spot at termination)


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Normal Approach

  • Note

    • Exercise care to avoid tail low attitudes near ground..at 12 deg nose up attitude the tail skid and rear skids could contact the ground simultaneously


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Steep Approach

  • Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/30 K groundspeed, 45 degree apparent angle

    • Initiate approach with 30 k groundspeed, +/- 5 k

    • At desired angle, lower collective to start approach, maintain apparent angle at which approach is started throughout approach

    • Use collective to control angle and rate of descent, cyclic to control rate of closure

    • Coordinate controls to effect a smooth transition to zero groundspeed over intended spot (nose centered over landing spot)

    • 800 fpm maximum rate of descent below 30 KIAS

    • Reducing forward speed to 0, with rates of descent in excess of 800 fpm may result in setting with power

    • Terminate within 10ft of intended hover/touchdown spot


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Shallow Approach

  • Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/70 KIAS , 10 degree apparent angle

    • At desired angle, lower collective to establish a descent, start gradual reduction of airspeed/groundspeed

    • Power required, aircraft attitude, approach speed will vary (different aircraft weights, density altitude, winds)

    • Rate of closure (brisk walk) controlled primarily by cyclic, adjust so ETL lost as aircraft enters ground effect (about 50 ft)

    • Coordinate collective and cyclic to maintain angle/decrease speed, wing low method to maintain groundtrack/alignment below 50 ft

    • Allow for smooth transition to zero groundspeed at 3-5 ft hover over landing spot (aim for mast centered over spot at termination)


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Slide Landing

  • Normally used in conjunction with shallow approach

    • Plan the approach to near end of landing area, touchdown with airspeed at or slightly above translational lift

    • Touchdown must occur in the first two-thirds of landing area

    • At hover altitude, establish landing attitude (very slightly nose high, hover attitude), smoothly fly aircraft to the ground

    • Collective as necessary to cushion the landing, maintain directional control with the tail rotor pedals and cyclic as required

    • Heading aligned with landing direction +/- 5 deg

    • Collective slowly reduced to allow skid friction to stop aircraft; an abrupt reduction of collective may cause helicopter to nose over and result in the rotor contacting the fuselage


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Approach to Touchdown

  • Made from any desired angle, used when there is a shortage of power, possibility of restriction to visibility (blowing snow/sand/grass), or anytime hovering is not desired.

    • Touchdown area must be clear of obstructions and nearly level

    • Touchdown at zero, or near zero groundspeed, landing attitude (very slightly nose high, hover attitude)

    • Smoothly fly aircraft to ground


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Traffic Pattern Flight

  • Enter traffic pattern on 45 deg angle to center of downwind leg, or as directed by ATC

    • Maintain straight ground track using crab method, aircraft in trim

    • Maintain rate of climb/descent +/- 100 fpm, airspeed +/- 10 KIAS (90KIAS downwind/70KIAS crosswind/base), altitudes +/- 100 feet (500’ agl downwind, 300’ agl base or stagefield altitudes published in In-Flight Guide), roll out on desired hdg +/- 10 deg

    • Pilot on controls primarily focused outside, all other crewmembers assist as requested - clear all turns prior to beginning turn

    • Utilize proper power management to climb, level off, and descend as appropriate


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Emergency Procedures

  • Straight-Ahead Autorotation

  • Autorotation with Turn


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Straight-Ahead Autorotation

  • Practice autorotation terminated with power, but should be planned as though an actual to a touchdown

    • To enter, smoothly lower collective to minimum, reduce throttle to flight idle, apply right pedal to maintain trim (coordinated flight)

    • Verbalize the underlined steps, check for normal engine instrument readings and rotor in the green during descent

    • Adjust aircraft attitude to attain desired glide speed; wings level, min of 70 KIAS, rotor in green, normal (< 3000fpm) rate of descent prior to flare

    • Initiate flare at 75-100 feet with smooth aft cyclic application (reduce rate of descent and groundspeed, allow rotor to build), once established slowly rotate throttle to full-open position

    • No lower than 25’, rotate aircraft to landing (hover attitude, very slightly nose high) attitude, initial power pull at 15-20’

    • Terminate with power no lower than 4’ above ground, 0-15 k gs, no lateral drift


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Straight-Ahead Autorotation

  • Standards

    • Entry altitude +/- 100 feet (Min straight 500’agl; turning 800’agl)

    • Entry airspeed 90KIAS +/- 10 KIAS

    • Verbalize underlined steps, select correct entry point

    • Rotor within limits (in green) throughout entire manuever

    • 70-100 KIAS at flare entry, flare initiated at 75-100 feet

    • Heading alignment within +/- 10 deg during power application

    • Smooth, precise controlled aircraft movement

    • Terminate no lower than 4’ with less than 15 k groundspeed

    • Landing attitude at termination with no lateral drift


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Turning Autorotation

  • Practice autorotation with 180 deg turn terminated with power, but should be planned as an actual to a touchdown

    • To enter, smoothly lower collective to minimum, reduce throttle to flight idle, apply right pedal to maintain trim, start turn to lane

    • Verbalize the underlined steps, check for normal engine instrument readings and rotor in the green during descent

    • Adjust aircraft attitude to attain desired glide speed (if a/s decreases during turn do not dive excessively), continue turn toward landing area

    • Must have wings level, min of 70 KIAS, rotor in green, normal (< 3000fpm) rate of descent, aligned with lane no lower than 150’AGL prior to flare (minor heading corrections on final allowed)

    • Initiate flare at 75-100 feet with smooth aft cyclic application (reduce rate of descent and groundspeed, allow rotor to build), once established slowly rotate throttle to full-open position

    • No lower than 25’, rotate aircraft to landing (hover attitude, very slightly nose high) attitude, initial power pull at 15-20’

    • Terminate with power no lower than 4’ above ground, 0-15 k gs, no lateral drift


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Turning Autorotation

  • Standards

    • Entry altitude +/- 100 feet (Min straight 500’agl; turning 800’agl)

    • Entry airspeed 90KIAS +/- 10 KIAS

    • Verbalize underlined steps, select correct entry point

    • Rotor within limits (in green) throughout entire manuever

    • Maintain airspeed during descent 80 KIAS +/- 20 during turn

    • 70-100 KIAS at flare entry, flare initiated at 75-100 feet

    • Heading alignment within +/- 10 deg during power application

    • Smooth, precise controlled aircraft movement

    • Terminate no lower than 4’ with less than 15 k groundspeed

    • Landing attitude at termination with no lateral drift


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Autorotations

  • Warnings

    • Ensure collective at minimum setting to maintain rotor in limits and throttle application smooth when advancing throttle to full open; reduces stress applied to sprag clutch

    • Avoid low airspeed/high vertical descent during final portion; engine power/rotor inertia may not be sufficient to safely recover the aircraft

  • Notes

    • If at any time the success of the autorotation is in doubt initiate a immediate power recovery and/or go-around

    • Key elements for a successful autorotation are suitable glide speed and aircraft trim

    • Slight amount of back pressure on cyclic during turn will aid in getting through the turn and avoid diving


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Summary

  • Introduction

  • Takeoffs

  • Approaches

  • Traffic Patterns

  • Emergency Procedures