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Chapter 3 & Web Appendix 3A. Financial Statements, Cash Flows, and Taxes . Topic Overview. Key Financial Statements (See Best Buy Spreadsheet for Example) Balance sheet Income statements Statement of retained earnings Statement of cash flows Accounting Income vs. Cash Flow

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Chapter 3 & Web Appendix 3A


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chapter 3 web appendix 3a

Chapter 3 & Web Appendix 3A

Financial Statements, Cash Flows, and Taxes

topic overview
Topic Overview
  • Key Financial Statements (See Best Buy Spreadsheet for Example)
    • Balance sheet
    • Income statements
    • Statement of retained earnings
    • Statement of cash flows
  • Accounting Income vs. Cash Flow
  • Statement of Cash Flows
  • Individual and Corporate Income Taxes
the annual report
The annual report
  • Balance sheet – provides a snapshot of a firm’s financial position at one point in time. (Please review section 3.3)
  • Income statement – summarizes a firm’s revenues and expenses over a given period of time. (Please review section 3.4)
  • Statement of retained earnings – shows how much of the firm’s earnings were retained, rather than paid out as dividends. (Please review section 3.7)
  • Statement of cash flows – reports the impact of a firm’s activities on cash flows over a given period of time.
some balance sheet comments
Some Balance Sheet Comments
  • Net Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities
  • Assets (particularly Long-term) and Equity on Balance Sheet are Book (or historical-based) Values.
  • Market Value of Assets and Equity (# of shares x market price/share) can be vastly different for a given firm.
    • For Best Buy: 2/25/2006 Book Value of Equity = $5.247 billion, 2/25/2006 Market Value= $26.6 billion
accounting income vs cash flow
An Income Statement

Sales

Cost of Goods Sold

Selling & Gen. Adm. Exp

Depreciation

Interest Exp

Taxable Income

Taxes

Net Income

Do all items reflect all cash collected and paid?

NO!!! Income statement is on an accrued basis.

What is and who is depreciation?

Accounting Income vs. Cash Flow
net cash flow or simple income statement cash flow
Net Cash Flow or Simple Income Statement Cash Flow
  • If all other revenues and expenses are in cash or non-cash revenues and expenses net to zero, then
  • Net Cash Flow(NCF) = Net Income + Depreciation(& Amortization)
  • 2006 Homer & Son, Depreciation = 100; Net Income = 180
  • NCF = 180 + 100 = 280
  • Otherwise, Net Cash Flow = Cash Revenues - Cash Expenses
statement of cash flows
Statement of Cash Flows
  • Shows how the firm used and raised cash during the year.
  • Reconciles the Income Statement by the changes in the Balance Sheet from the beginning of the year to the end of the year
statement of cash flows general concepts
Statement of Cash Flows: General Concepts

Overall:

  • Inflows(or sources) of cash are net income, depreciation, decreases in assets, and increases in liabilities
  • Outflows(or uses) of cash are increases in assets, decreases in liabilities, and dividends
parts of statement of cash flows
Parts of Statement of Cash Flows
  • Operating Cash Flow = net cash income from income statement: net income, Depreciation,change in A/R, Inv, Other CA, A/P, Accruals (Wages & Taxes), Other CL
  • Investing Cash Flow = Purchases and Sales of long-term real assets and investments (Marketable Securities)
  • Financing Cash Flow = issuances and payments of debt and stock: L-T Debt, Common and Preferred Stock, Notes Payable & Dividends Paid
using accounting data to measure other cash flows for investors
Using Accounting Data to Measure Other Cash Flows for Investors
  • Operating Cash Flow = total cash available for new asset investment, and for debt & equity investors.
  • Free Cash Flow = cash available for debt & equity investors. This measure is often use to value a firm.
operating cash flow ocf
Operating Cash Flow (OCF)
  • OCF = Net Operating Profit After Taxes (NOPAT) + Depreciation & Amortization
    • NOPAT = Earnings Before Interest & Taxes (EBIT) x (1 – Tax Rate)
  • OCF = EBIT(1 – tax rate) + Depreciation & Amortization
free cash flow fcf
Free Cash Flow (FCF)
  • FCF = Operating Cash Flow (OCF) – Investment in Operating Capital
    • Investment in Operating Capital = Increase in Gross Fixed Assets (Capital Expenditures) + Increase in Net Operating Working Capital
      • Increase in Gross Fixed Assets = Increase in Net Fixed Assets + Depreciation
      • Increase in Net Operating Working Capital = Increase in Current Assets – Increase in non-interest bearing current liabilities
alternate fcf definition
Alternate FCF Definition
  • This definition is not developed or presented in the chapter itself but is used in some of the problem solutions.
  • The term Investment in Net Operating Capital is created which is Increase in Net Fixed Assets + Increase in Net Operation Working Capital.
  • Since depreciation is deducted in the Net Operating Capital term it must be deducted from the OCF term.
  • FCF = NOPAT – Investment in Net Operating Capital
2006 single individual tax rates note appendix 3a provides 2004 brackets
2006 Single Individual Tax RatesNote: Appendix 3A provides 2004 brackets.

Taxable Income

Tax on Base

Rate*

0 – 7,550

0

10%

7,550 - 30,650

755.00

15%

30,650 - 74,200

4,220.00

25%

74,200 - 154,800

15,107.50

28%

154,800 - 336,550

Over 336,550

37,675.50

97.653.00

33%

35%

O

*Plus this percentage on the amount over the bracket base.

personal income taxes
Personal Income Taxes
  • Marginal tax rate = the tax rate on the next dollar of income.
  • Wages, tips, and interest income are considered ordinary taxable income.
  • Deductions: charitable donations, mortgage interest, aportion of student loan interest,personal exemptions, and medical expenses to an extent(> 7.5% of gross income).
personal investment taxes
Personal Investment Taxes
  • Interest Income taxed at individual’s marginal tax rate.
  • Dividend Income tax rate: 15% or less
  • Financial and Real assets held for less than 12 MONTHS and then sold for a gain are considered short-term capital gains and taxed at the taxpayer’s marginal tax rate.
  • Long-term (held more than 12 months) capital gains are taxed at a max rate of 15%.
corporate income taxes
Corporate Income Taxes
  • Corporate deductions from income: operating expenses, depreciation, interest expense.
  • Dividends paid are NOT deductible.
  • Interest and capital gain income is fully taxable.
  • 30% (in general) of Dividend income is taxable.
  • Losses can be carried back 2 years and carried forward up to 20 years
corporate tax rates
Corporate Tax Rates

Taxable Income

Tax on Base

Rate*

0 - 50,000

0

15%

50,000 - 75,000

7,500

25%

75,000 - 100,000

13,750

34%

100,000 - 335,000

22,250

39%

... ... ...

Over 18.3M

6.4M

35%

*Plus this percentage on the amount over the bracket base.

slide27

Assume a corporation has $100,000 of taxable income from operations, $5,000 of interest income, and $10,000 of dividend income.

What’s its tax liability?

slide28

Taxable vs.

Tax Exempt Bonds

State and local government bonds (munis) are generally exempt from federal taxes.

after tax investment returns
After-tax Investment Returns
  • After-tax Return=Before-tax Return(1-T)
  • After-tax Corporate Dividend Return = Before-tax Dividend Yield (1 - .3T)
  • Municipal Bond Interest is tax exempt on the federal level
  • Equivalent pretax return = Muni Return/(1-T)
after tax return example
After-Tax Return Example
  • Which of the following would you prefer if your marginal tax rate is 28%?
  • Exxon bonds at 10% or California municipal bonds at 7%.
  • At what marginal tax rate would you be indifferent be these two bonds?