Thursday, August 5th Bellringer Write an essay (not short, not lengthy) that… • Defines and explains “courage” • Outlines your courage • Would you have the courage to explore an “unknown” • Provides examples of courage as seen over the course of American history
The Beginning:The Americas before exploration, English America, the Colonies, Revolution
By the time Europeans arrived in America in 1492, perhaps 54 million people inhabited North and South America. • Corn agriculture and hunting • Pueblo • Rio Grande valley • Mississippian • Lower midwest • Other high density settlements
So why did Europeans want to leave Europe/come here? • New trade routes to the East • Spirit and technological discoveries of the Renaissance • Power of the new European national monarchies
Consequences of commingling the Old and the New Worlds • Biological change • Disease • Population loss • Conquest • African slavery • Cultural change • Economic expansion
The Spanish Conquistadores • Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 • Vasco de Balboa • Ferdinand Magellan • Juan Ponce de Leon • Francisco Coronado • Hernando de Soto • Francisco Pizarro • Encomienda • Hernan Cortes • Tenochtitlan, Moctezuma
The Original 13 Colonies • Virginia • New Hampshire • Massachusetts • Maryland • Connecticut • Rhode Island • Delaware • North Carolina • New York • New Jersey • Carolina • Pennsylvania • Georgia Reasons for founding (including who, when) Types of settlers…who lived there? Problems the colony and colonists faced Success or failure and why?
Permanent English settlements Jamestown South Carolina ties with British sugar colonies in the West Indies slave codes large plantation agriculture North Carolina Georgia Plantation agriculture Indentured service African slavery
Settling the Northern Colonies • Founded by English Puritans • The Pilgrims • Massachusetts Bay Colony • Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire • New York • Pennsylvania
Compare and contrast Jamestown and the Massachusetts Bay Colony in terms of the reasons for their founding, types of settlers, early problems, and the reasons for successes and failures. ESSAY
What was life like in the colonies? • SOUTHERN COLONIES • Settlement • Tobacco • Indentured Servants • Disease • Men vs. Women • Families • Bacon’s Rebellion • Slaves
What was life like in the colonies? • NORTHERN COLONIES • Healthy way of life • Strong families • Tightly-knit towns • Salem Witch Trials
Letters, diaries, and court transcripts of the early English colonists tell us a great deal about colonial life in North America. Using the documents provided, as well as information from your textbook, discuss the colonial experience of their motivations for settlement, their struggle for survival, their religious convictions, and their relations with the Native Americans. DBQ #1
Dueling for North America • France developed a thinly settled empire based on the fur trade • Throughout much of the 17th and 18th centuries, Britain and France engaged in a bitter power struggle that frequently erupted into worldwide wars. • King William’s/Queen Anne’s War • War of Jenkins’s Ear/King George’s War • George Washington & the Ohio Valley • Seven Years’ War • The British finally forced France from North America.
Results… • The American colonials emerged with increased confidence in their own abilities. • The bloody episode of Pontiac’s uprising convinced the British of the need to stabilize relations with the Indians and to keep regular troops stationed in North America. • The Proclamation of 1763 prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians.
The Road to Revolution • Deep roots of Revolution – caused American colonists to be on guard against any threat to their rights • Republicanism • “radical Whigs” • Mercantilism • Sugar Act of 1764 • Quartering Act of 1765 • Stamp Tax of 1765 • Stamp Act Congress of 1765 • Townshend Acts
What really happened? The Boston Massacre
The Road to Revolution • Committees of Correspondence • Samuel Adams • Boston Tea Party • Intolerable Acts – Quebec Act • 1st Continental Congress • Declaration of Rights • The Association • Lexington & Concord • Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts • No revenue – nonimportation agreements • Local Committees of Correspondence • Intercolonial Committees of Correspondence • VA: House of Burgesses • Boston Tea Party • Intolerable Acts • 1st Continental Congress • Lexington & Concord
For today… • We left off (on Friday) with the Boston Massacre… • Pick up reading (if you haven’t already) at this point. It begins on page 130 with “The Seditious Committees of Correspondence.” Read through page 137, up until the heading, “A Thin Line of Heroes.” • Create an outline within your notes. • The section, “Imperial Strength and Weakness” discusses, obviously, the strengths and weakness of Britain. Outline these. • The section, “American Pluses and Minuses, discusses, obviously, the strengths and weakness of the colonies. Outline these. • Read the primary source packet that is on the stool.
Tuesday – August 17th Bellringer These questions refer to “A General Huzza for Griffin’s Wharf,” found on pages 26-27 of your primary source documents from yesterday. Be thinking about your responses. • Summarize the events of the Boston Tea Party as told by George Hewes. Is this account a reliable source? • What role did “Governor Hutchinson” play in the Boston tea party? • What do you think is meant by “general huzza”? • Why do you think the participants so “readily submitted” to those three individuals who assumed authority? • What was Hewes appointed/ordered to do once the “Indians” boarded the ships? What was the response? • Why did the “Indians” cut the chests of tea so that it would be exposed to the water? • How long did the Boston Tea Party last? • Why do you think there was no attempt to unmask any of the men who participated? Why was there no attempt to discover their identities? • Why were such drastic measures taken to prevent people from taking/rescuing the tea?
Strengths Weaknesses Britain Colonies
Road to Revolution • Second Continental Congress • May 1775 • Still not calling for independence, only redress of grievances • Adopted measures to raise money to create an army and navy • Appointed George Washington as leader of the army
The American Revolution • May 1775 – American forces captured British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point (upper NY) • Seized gunpowder and artillery • June 1775 – colonists seized Bunker Hill • British respond with attack • Colonists slaughtered them, but ran out of gunpowder • Colonists had to abandon the hill • July 1775 – Olive Branch Petition • August 1775 – King George III declared colonies in rebellion • September 1775 – Britain hired thousands of German troops (Hessians)
The American Revolution • October 1775 – colonists invade Canada, hoping its capture would add a 14th colony and rid Britain of a base from which they could attack • Leaders and generals were killed/wounded; retreated • Thomas Paine – “Common Sense” and “Republicanism” • January 1776 – Norfolk, VA burned • February 1776 – colonists’ victory in NC • March 1776 – evacuation of Boston • June 1776 – colonists’ victory in Charleston • July 1776 – 2nd Continental Congress & the Declaration of Independence
The American Revolution • Summer/Fall 1776 – Battle of Long Island – Washington escaped to Manhattan Island, crossed the Hudson River to NJ, and reached the Delaware River • December 26, 1776 – Washington recrossed the Delaware River to capture Hessians • Late 1777 – Washington defeated in battles at Brandywine Creek and Germantown (near Philadelphia) • October 17, 1777 – General Burgoyne forced to surrender at Saratoga • February 1778 – treaty of alliance with France • June 1778 – Washington attacks British at Monmouth
The American Revolution • 1778/1779 – British overrun Georgia • 1778/1779 – Clark’s victories in the West • 1780 – Charleston fell to Britain • Late 1780-early 1781 – American victories at King’s Mountain and Cowpens • Georgia and SC cleared of British troops • October 19, 1781 – Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown • Treaty of Paris