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Cross Border Education

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  1. Cross Border Education Emerson P David DEPM 625 University of Maryland University College Submitted to Prof. Thomas Huelsmann By Emerson David

  2. Introduction Nation’s growth depends on human capital Knowledge is the key to development Demand - knowledge-based industries & Higher education Word Organization encourages Developing countries Higher education – International commodity Globalization Universities respond to market demand Students crossing borders to UK, US , Australia and France India, Malaysia, Singapore and China (Asian Countries) Emerson David

  3. Globalism? Placing the interest of the entire word above individual nation Unification of world’s economic order Reduce barriers Increase of material wealth through division of labor . “Globalization is a process by which societies and culture are integrated through communication, transportation and trade. However, some believe that globalization (or the globalized world) has increased the possibility of international conflict” Ref: Wikipedia Emerson David

  4. Education in Globalized World Education for All – Resolution by World Bank, United Nations & MDGs (Millennium Development Goal) In globalized world, education is more important than ever Education is “Fundamental Human Right” Productivity & Poverty reduction Social benefit Education promotes cohesiveness Democracy functions better High Return of Investment (ROI) Emerson David

  5. Globalization & Cross Border Education Limited Government Funds Government – Emphasis to tradable for financial growth Reduced subsidies to education Private institution establish cross-border education (market demand) GATS influence Cross Border Education (CBE) Universities have international influence – produce & sell goods Education as tradable commodity Institution compete for international students International students’ mobility OECD – Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Emerson David

  6. Globalization & Cross Border Education …. Continue Education responds to global market demand Education – shaped by globalization Agencies working toward helping developing countries for CBHE Universities have dual attributes – national & international Some actors – Investors rather than educators in CBHE Emerson David

  7. What is Cross Border Education? “Cross-border higher education includes higher education that takes place when students follow a course or program of study that has been produced, and is continued to be maintained, in a country different from the one in which they are residing. Cross-border higher education may include higher education by private and/or for-profit providers (Daniel, 2006).” Cross-border higher education may or can emerge from any entities such as corporations, universities, professional organizations or multinational organization. The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) has reinforced national sovereignty over cross-border higher education When an institution and its programs, teachers, course materials and students cross over the boundaries of other nations, it is considered as cross-border education. Daniel, J., (2006). The reality of cross-border delivery in higher education: Challenge, myth and opportunity. Commonwealth of Learning, Emerson David

  8. What is Cross Border Education -----Cont. “Distance education need not respect frontiers: growing numbers of students and institutions are using technology to leap across them” (Perraton, 2007, p. 114) Categories: • Simple border enrolment • Dissemination • Collaboration • Cooperative Agencies GATS – Purposes: Cross border supply Consumption abroad Presence of university campus and partnership Physical (natural) presence Perraton, H. (2007). Open and development learning in the developing world. New York: Routledge. Emerson David

  9. Reason for and Benefits of CBE Developing countries have limited resources CBE helps improve quality Helps students acquires higher education from developed countries Helps to develop competence Provide many choice to learners No Brain drain – in developing countries Easy access Reasonable tuition cost – developing countries Help build international social & economic wealth Greater diversity in programs Emerson David

  10. Challenges CBHE is complex and global in nature Students face challenge in finding institution of integrity & Quality (Rogue & Degree Mills) International price (tuition) – too expensive in Developing nations Limited Internet infrastructure in developing countries GATS implementation on HE as tradable may hamper CBHE “In the emerging global economy where the neo-liberal values of privatization and market competition are dominant, it is crucial for those of us committed to public education to reaffirm certain fundamental values and principles. One of these principles is that education, including higher, technical, and professional education, is a right and not a commodity (EI, 2001, p. 5).” EI. (2001). Globalization, GATS and higher education. Emerson David

  11. Emerson David

  12. Cross Border Education Emerson P David DEPM 625 – UMUC Fall 2011 Emerson David

  13. “The real difficulty is that people have no idea of what education truly is. We assess the value of education in the same manner as we assess the value of land or of shares in the stock-exchange market. We want to provide only such education as would enable the student to earn more. We hardly give any thought to the improvement of the character of the educated. The girls, we say, do not have to earn; so why should they be educated? As long as such ideas persist there is no hope of our ever knowing the true value of education.” -- Mahatma Gandhi Thank You! Emerson David