Chapter 18 Classification. 18.1 Finding Order in Diversity. Assigning Scientific Names Common names confusing=varies w/ lang & location Scientific name ( latin ) same worldwide. Puma. Cougar. Panther. Common names for a mountain l ion:. Dichotomous key : guide to ID unknown org
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Common names for a mountain lion:
The king vulture Sarcorhamphus papahas a scientific name that means "father or leader with a fleshy, curved beak."
This poison arrow frog's scientific name,
Dendrobatesazureus, means blue tree-walker!
Used visible similarities/differences (barnacles look like limpets but are more like crabs)
Today: use evolutionary relationships
Cladistic analysis shows specific traits branch from comm ancestor
Links groups showing evolutionary relationships
Building Cladograms: branches (nodes) represent ancestral species splitting in 2
Each node=last point species above line shared com ancestor
Root of node=common ancestor of those more recent
Derived Characters: trait arising in most recent ancestor of lineage
Losing Traits: tetrapods (4 limbs) include reptiles; snake still reptile
Interpreting Cladogram: character positions reflects order they arose
Clade vs Traditional grps: evol. links more accurate=clades connects all species back to original ancestor (dinosaurs/ birds/reptile)
in common) =>closer related
New Evolutionary Trees
DNA=more accurate evolutionary tree
American vulture looks like African vulture yet DNA & behavior more similar to stork (more recent comm ancestor)
Giant panda DNA more like bears; Red panda DNA more like racoons (Pandas now in different clades)
Raccoons Red pandas Giant pandas Bears