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Source: The Christian Harmony (Compiled by Wm. Walker - 1873 ed.). The Application of Constructivist Techniques to an Online Graduate Music Education Course. By Dan A. Keast. Rationale for Study.

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the application of constructivist techniques to an online graduate music education course

The Application of Constructivist Techniques to an Online Graduate Music Education Course

By

Dan A. Keast

rationale for study
Rationale for Study
  • James & Voigt (2001): “online courses can access out-of-town experts for discussions and guest lectures.”
  • 1883 – 1st distance course at U.W.
  • 1932 – U. Iowa used TV’s in distance ed
  • 1997 – Harvard had 10% of its $1.5 billion budget from online education
  • Dyrud (2000) “virtual universities are popping up like mushrooms and that distance education offerings in traditional venues are multiplying like rabbits.”
rationale continued
Rationale (continued)
  • University of Phoenix Online

1997 – 4,700 students

2002 – 49,400 students

40% minority students

Average age is 34

70% undergraduate

26% graduate

65% graduation rate!

related literature
Related Literature
  • Phipps & Merisotis (1999) “it seems clear that technology cannot replace the human factor in higher education.”
  • Chickering & Ehrmann (1996) “good practice uses active learning techniques”
webquest
WebQuest
  • Dodge (1996) “an inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the Internet.”
  • Six Step Cookbook-Style Recipe
    • Introduction
    • The activity or task at hand
    • The process of the activity
    • Resources or information sources
    • Evaluation of the learner’s project
    • Conclusion
salmon 2002
Salmon (2002)
  • E-tivities
    • Access and motivation
    • Online socialization
    • Information exchange
    • Knowledge construction
    • Development
jonassen 1999
Jonassen (1999)
  • Constructivist Learning Environment
    • Problem or project
    • Related cases
    • Information resources
    • Cognitive tools
    • Conversation and collaboration tools
    • Social / contextual support
perkins 1992
Perkins (1992)
  • Components for a constructivist activity online should include:
    • Information banks
    • Symbol pads
    • Construction kits
    • Phenomenaria
    • Task Managers
research questions
Research Questions
  • What services or resources would the participants use?
  • Can this method of JavaScript be used to track and accurately represent a grad student’s research process?
  • What resources are most popularly used in the participants' research process?
  • How often and what time of day do these graduate students typically access course materials?
  • Is the method of delivery an issue for the students or is it transparent enough to allow full investigation of the course material instead of learning the technology?
teacher research design
Teacher-Research Design
  • Collage page is a metaphor as the entrance for the class to explore their classroom
  • 42 Tunebooks, 40+ listening examples, 30 web pages, tons of hyperlinks, anchors, built-in interaction, communication tools, and a checklist
  • JavaScript tracking of participants’ pages visited and times the pages were opened
  • In class presentations were the culminating activity
  • Triangulation through tracking logs, pre- and post-surveys, and grade from presentation
1 what services or resources would the participants use
1. What services or resources would the participants use?
  • Tunebook.html - 19.22% of time (66 hits)
  • Lesson.php - 3.65% of time (61 hits)
  • Gather.html - 1.51% of time (32 hits)
  • Present.html - 4.14% of time (23 hits)
  • External links - 1.30% of time (21 hits)
  • Library homepage - 3.52% of time (17 hits)
  • Classroom.html - 1.84% of time (12 hits)
  • Google.com - 2.39% of time (10 hits)
  • Mailto links - 1.68% of time (9 hits)
  • Music Index Online - 0.36% of time (8 hits)
  • ERIC Database - 2.53% of time (7 hits)
  • Individual tunebooks - 13.54% of time (50 hits)
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2. Can this method of JavaScript be used to track and accurately represent a grad student’s research process?
  • Researched the topic before viewing the primary sources
  • Many did not complete the required readings before going into the activity
  • Bonk (2001) “future studies of web-based conferencing and other forms of online learning can benefit from computer logs… [and] surveys.”
3 what resources are most popularly used in the participants research process
3. What resources are most popularly used in the participants' research process?
  • Search pages accounted for 12.8%
  • Viewing primary sources accounted for 13.5%
  • Focus group pages accounted for 32.7%
  • Activity-based pages accounted for 28.8%
  • Assigned readings accounted for 6.5%
  • Communication pages accounted for 2%
4 how often and how much time do these graduate students typically access course materials
4. How often and how much time do these graduate students typically access course materials?
  • Total time logged was 28 hours with 482 pages viewed
  • Doctoral (2.3 hours) v. Masters (4.2 hours)
  • Average pages viewed by the 8 participants was 60
  • Inter-rater reliability of the presentations was r = .843 between the two graders
slide16

5. Is the method of delivery an issue for the students or is it transparent enough to allow full investigation of the course material instead of learning the technology?

  • Technology is an extension of the lesson, not a replacement for the educator
  • Russell (1999) “learning is not caused by the technology but by the instructional method embedded in the media.”
  • No participants accessed help via the IATS logo on the classroom page
  • 1 participant downloaded Adobe 6.0
implications for educators
Implications for Educators
  • Less pages with more content
  • Offer several places for students to utilize search engines
  • Assigned readings were not correlated to grades nor time heavy by these participants
  • More scaffolding on each focus group page instead of the classroom metaphor page
  • Primary sources were not viewed until they had researched about the sources first
suggestions for future research
Suggestions for Future Research
  • JavaScript issues
    • Disable back button on the browser
    • Hyperlinks do not open in new windows
    • Logging out is essential
  • Pacing of activities
    • Lock topics to be claimed until a certain point
    • Login page should direct to a personalized checklist page instead of the metaphor page
  • Presentations
    • Less directed and constructivist in nature
    • Tie to standards in music
    • Emphasize the transfer to their current classroom
  • Larger sample size to corroborate these findings
thank you for attending this dissertation defense

Thank you for attending this dissertation defense!

What questions may I answer for you about this study?