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Roman Culture and Society. Chapter 5, Section 3. standards. 5.9.pi1 - list inventions, innovations, and other technological developments and incorporate the idea of change in the realms of communications, transportation, production, and lifestyle ,

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roman culture and society

Roman Culture and Society

Chapter 5, Section 3

  • 5.9.pi1 - list inventions, innovations, and other technological developments and incorporate the idea of change in the realms of communications, transportation, production, and lifestyle,
  • 5.10.pi3 - analyze the evolution of the political, economic, and social status of women
  • 5.1 - describe the major historical eras and major events associated with those eras from the beginnings of civilization through the modern world.
roman arts and literature
Roman arts and literature
  • Roman military shipped artwork back to Rome after their many conquests.
  • The Romans used this as a model for their artwork.
art and architecture
Art and architecture
  • Romans borrowed styles of art from the Greeks.
  • The Romans however, produced more realistic artwork.
  • Romans excelled in architecture.
  • Known for curved forms: arch, vault, dome and using large amounts of concrete.
  • Supreme builders constructed roads, bridges, and aqueducts.
roman architecture
Roman architecture

The Coliseum

  • Golden age of Latin literature came during the Age of Augustus.
  • Virgil – wrote Aeneid to honor Rome after Augustus took over.
  • Primary Source – pg. 161
  • Horace – writes Satires – weakness of humans.
  • Livy – wrote “The Early History of Rome” – 142 books – he saw history in terms of moral lessons.
  • Stories reveled character of the chief figures and demonstrated the virtues tat makes Rome great.
  • Problem 1 – He told a good story, but was not factually accurate.
reading check
Reading Check
  • Why are Livy’s histories considered important to historians?
  • Livy’s histories reveal Roman values

(5-9.pi1 – developments and change in the Roman Empire)

life in ancient rome
Life in ancient rome
  • Roman family social structure – paterfamiles = dominant male.
  • Romans raised their children at home – boys and girls had to learn to read.
  • Father chose how to educate the children.
  • At age 16 – childhood ended for the boys at a special ceremony. Boys would exchange for their purple edged toga for a white one.
life in ancient rome1
Life in ancient rome
  • Fathers would arrange marriages for their daughters.
  • Girls could marry at 12 but on average they were 14.
  • Males could marry at 14 but it was usually much later.
  • Early on divorce was not allowed but eventually this changed. Men or Women could ask for a divorce.
  • As time passed, the paterfamilia broke down and males absolute authority was no longer.
life in ancient rome2
Life in ancient Rome
  • Women had considerable rights in Rome – own, inherit, and sell property.
  • Women could go out by themselves but in certain places there was women only sections.
  • Women could not participate in politics but they their influence was seen through their husbands.

(5.10.pi3 – social status of women)

slavery and revolts
Slavery and revolts
  • Slavery was common and heavily relied on by the Romans.
  • Most early slaves were taken but after many conquests prisoners were brought back.
  • Greek slaves were in high demand.
  • Horrible treatment – cheaper to let a slave die than to help them.
  • Slaves revolted but if a slave was caught he and all of the other slaves were killed.
  • Led a revolt of 70,000 slaves. He was eventually killed and 6,000 of his followers were crucified.

I am Spartacus

living conditions
Living conditions
  • Capital city of Rome – close to 1 million people.
  • Rome was 2 sided – beautiful city and noisy city.
  • Walking in Rome was extremely dangerous – cart and wagon traffic was kept to nighttime only.
  • Crime was also extremely rampant in Rome.
  • There was a large gap between the rich and the poor.
living conditions1
Living conditions
  • The poor lived in insulae – 6 stories high and was mostly made of wood.
  • Fire was a consistent threat and high rent forced many families to live together.
  • Rome had a HUGE problem – Emperors had given the poor free grain (200,000) and free entertainment.
  • 3 types of entertainment: Horse/Chariot Races – Dramatic shows – gladiatorial shows.
reading check1
Reading Check
  • Why did the Roman emperors provide free grain to the poor?
  • There would be riots if people were starving.
decline and fall
Decline and Fall

Chapter 5, Section 5

the decline
The decline
  • After Marcus Aurelius died – conflict, confusion, and civil wars followed.
problems and upheavals
Problems and upheavals
  • Following the civil wars – a military government took control.
  • The Roman throne was occupied by whoever could sieze it.
  • For the next 50 years – Rome had 2 emperors.
  • Eventually the Persians and Germanic tribes flooded into Roman land.
  • Rome was heading to full on economic collapse.
problems and upheavals1
Problems and upheavals
  • Plague also caused a labor shortage and hurt military recruitment.
  • Rome was slowly declining and was desperately need of help.
  • Before Rome fell totally dead in the water 2 emperors provided a new lease on life.
  • Diocletian and Constantine provided a new rigid social structure and economic system.
  • They also focused on the new state religion – Christianity.
  • Diocletian knew the empire was too large and divided it up into 4 units.
final 2 emperors
Final 2 emperors



  • Constantine expanded Diocletian's policies and constructed a new capital city – Constantinople.
  • While their reforms were great it drained public funds and no new tax money was coming in.
  • To prevent inflation Diocletian issues a price edict but it did not work.
  • The next step was to keep working in family jobs – certain jobs became hereditary.
  • Ultimately, Constantine and Diocletian policies were based on control and coercion.
reading check2
Reading Check
  • Describe the conditions in Roman Empire prior to Diocletian and Constantine.
  • Civil war, invasions, conflict, confusion, and plague.

(5.1 – major historical events in the Roman era)

the fall
The fall
  • Constantine and Diocletian enjoyed early success but it did not last for a long period of time.
  • The restored empire limped along but continued to be divided into the western and eastern empire.
  • The western empire faced increased pressure from Germanic Tribes (Visigoths)
germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
  • Huns pressured Germanic Visigoths in Eastern Europe.
  • The Visigoths then sacked Rome.
  • The Vandals followed the Visigoths and continued to sack Rome.
  • Huns, Visigoths, Vandals – Invaders of Rome
  • Western Empire falls when Romulus Augustulus is deposed.
  • There are multiple theories about the fall of Rome:
    • 1. Christianity weakened Roman military virtues
    • 2. Traditional Roman values declined when non-Italians gained prominence.
    • 3. Lead poisoning caused mental decline.
    • 4. Plague wiped out 1/10 of population
    • 5. No technological advance due to slavery.
    • 6. No workable political system
  • No one explanation fits but all have some form of truth.

A different perspective of the fall of Rome