Causes of WWII in the Pacific. Causes, Practices and Effects of War. Historical debate of Japan’s responsibility. Japan as aggressor. Japan as imperial power. Japan planned the war from 1930’s Japan’s willingness to negotiate was a plan to keep enemy off guard Aggressor- aim to conquer Asia
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Causes of WWII in the Pacific Causes, Practices and Effects of War
Historical debate of Japan’s responsibility Japan as aggressor Japan as imperial power Japan planned the war from 1930’s Japan’s willingness to negotiate was a plan to keep enemy off guard Aggressor- aim to conquer Asia Japanese declaration of war blamed US- Japan wanted to liberate Asia from Western domination European style imperialism Japan didn’t plan for war, just took too many risks Japan was creating a sphere of influence (like US did in Latin America) Japan fought a defensive war- triggered by US embargoes. They had to act
TIMELINE of Events prior to Pacific War • See textbook p. 130 • 1919- Versailles Treaty confirms Japan’s war gains • 1926- Hirohito becomes Emperor • 1931- Kwantung Army invades Manchuria • 1936- Japan rejects fundamental objectives, signs Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany • 1937- Jun- KonoeFumimora becomes Prime Minister • Aug- Japan captures Shangai • Dec- rape of Nanjing • 1939- Japan blockades Britain in Tientsin • 1940- Sep- Tripartite German-Italian- Japanese Axis • 1941- Mar- Signs non-aggression treaty with Soviets • Dec- bombing of Pearl Harbor
Background Info • Mid 17th Century Japan is isolated from outside world • American Commodore Mathew Perry arrives in 1853 (wants to open up trade) • Japan signs Treaty of Kanagawa (1854)- opening up to the outside world • Improves military • Defeat China in the Sino- Japanese War (1894-95) • Defeat Russia in 1905 with Britain's support (Anglo-Japanese Alliance)
Read pages 131- 142 In groups answer the question assigned to you- fill in the Essay Outline- be prepared to present your answers • To what extent was Japan pursuing nationalist and imperialist goals? • How far was the military the driving force in Japan’s foreign policy by 1940? • To what extent was the USA responsible for the war in the Pacific? • How far can Hirohito be held responsible for the causes of the war between Japan and the USA in 1941?
Long term causes • WWI- Japan wants to increase its influence • 1915 US and Japan relations sour • Japan insists on political and economic position in China • US sees this as a threat to their interests
Long term causes • 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement—Japan could keep the gains they made up to 1917 (recognized by US) but no more allowed • China feels betrayed by US • Maintained or gained land after Versailles • Lack of foreign trade increases Japanese self reliance= economic boom • Britain and US mistrust Japan
Short term causes • Sino-Japanese conflict • 1937 Marco Polo bridge in Beijing—nationalism high—fighting. Large scale fighting—need for raw materials—war with US War with China leads to a complete takeover of Japanese government by the military
Japan’s relationships Germany USSR USSR as enemy Tripartite Pact (keep US out of war) Hitler declares war on US 11 December 1941 Friendly with Russia After revolution (USSR) Japan feels threatened territorially and ideologically USSR supplied China 1941 Germany and USSR hostile- Japan relaxes- sign Neutrality Pact with USSR Soviets declare war on Japan Aug 1945