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Basic Operation and Function of Industrial Regulators

Basic Operation and Function of Industrial Regulators

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Basic Operation and Function of Industrial Regulators

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  1. Basic Operation and Function of Industrial Regulators Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  2. Regulator Advantages • Regulators do not require an external power source, resulting in less down time. • Regulators do not require an external packing gland resulting in a lower chance of leakage. • Ease of maintenance. • Lower installation costs. • Instantaneous reaction. • Efficient and durable. • Self-contained. • (They do not require external piping.) Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  3. Applying Regulators KEY: CRV = Control Valve POR = Pilot Operated Regulator REG = Self-contained Regulator FTC REG = Flow-to-close Regulator FTO REG = Flow-to-open Regulator CRV WP = Control Valve w/positionerCRV WOP =Control Valve w/out positioner FACTORS CONSIDERED BEST NEXT LAST Line Size Cost – Thru 1-1/2” REG POR CRV – 2” thru 3” POR REG CRV – 4” and Up CRV POR REG Cost/CV – Thru 1-1/2” POR REG CRV – 2” and Up CRV POR REG Capacity CRV POR REG Outlet Pressure Level Capability CRV REG POR Output Pressure Level Maintenance of Set Point CRV POR REG Rangeability FTO REG CRV/POR FTC REG Requirements for External Power – (Air or Electricity) REG/POR CRV Stability CRV REG POR Speed of Response REG POR CRV WOP CRV WP Ability to Adapt to System Dynamics CRV POR REG Fail-Safe Action CRV POR/REG Adaptability (Add accessories, modify action) CRV REG PRO Remote Set Point Capability CRV Regulator, Dome Loaded POR/REG Maintenance Cost/Spare Parts REG POR CRV Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  4. PRESSURE REDUCING REGULATOR:A device that controls and responds to changes in its outlet pressure. Frs BACK PRESSURE REGULATOR: A device that controls and responds to changes in its inlet pressure. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE REGULATOR: A device that maintains a constant differential pressure between a reference pressure and the pressure of the controlled fluid. Fps Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  5. EXTERNAL PILOTED REGULATOR A piston or diaphragm actuated regulator controlled by a separate external pilot mechanism. Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  6. PRESSURE LOADED REGULATOR A regulator using a fixed volume and pressure of compressible fluid as a spring and set point reference to accomplish pressure reduction or back pressure regulation. sometimes called a Dome Loaded Regulator. Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  7. FTO vs. FTC FTC–FLOW TO CLOSE FTO–FLOW TO OPEN Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  8. REDUCING REGULATORS Force-Balance Principle Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  9. FTO REDUCING REGULATOR Inlet Pressure Tends to “Push” the Plug Open Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  10. FTO REDUCING REGULATO with BALANCED TRIM Inlet pressure tends to “PUSH” the plug open and closed at the same time, causing a balanced effect. Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  11. DIFFERENTIAL REDUCING REGULATOR Loading Connection Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  12. FTO PRESSURE LOADED REDUCING REGULATOR with BALANCED TRIM Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  13. BACK PRESSURE / RELIEF REGULATOR Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  14. BP REGULATOR with UNBALANCED TRIM TOP/CAGE GUIDED Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  15. PRESSURE LOADED BP REGULATOR with UNBALANCED TRIM TOP/CAGE GUIDED Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  16. DIFFERENTIAL BACK PRESSURE RELIEF REGULATOR Loading Connection Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  17. PILOT-OPERATED REDUCING REGULATOR Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  18. Droop Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  19. To Minimize Droop on Reducing Regulator and Build on Back Pressure Regulators • For a Reducing Regulator when flow demand increases the outlet pressure falls away or droops from set point. • For a back pressure regulator when the flow demand increases the inlet pressure • increases or builds above set point. • Use a larger body size with higher Cv – Capacity. • Use a composition diaphragm material. • Use full port trim instead of reduced port trim. • Use the lightest spring possible on pressure reducing and heaviest on back pressure. • Use dome loaded technology. Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  20. Increasing Regulator Sensitivity • Use a composition diaphragm instead of metal • Use a lighter range spring • Use a balanced trim design Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  21. COMPOSITION More sensitive. Increased capacity Increased efficiency. Recommended when compatible with fluids. Same price as metal. METAL Less sensitive. Reduces capacity. Recommended for high temperatures. Recommended when composition is not compatible with fluid. Composition vs. Metal Diaphragms Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  22. COMPOSITION Tight Shut-off No Seat Leakage Extended Seat Life Recommended when compatible with fluids. METAL Does not allow tight shut-off. Some seat leakage will occur. Recommended for high temperature applications. Recommended when composition is not compatible. Less expensive than composition seats. Composition vs. Metal Seats Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  23. Sizing a Regulator • Rule 1: Flow rate and set point are integral. • Set point varies with flow. • The amount of variation set point with a given change in flow is called: • Proportional Band • Droop • Offset • Buildup Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  24. Rule 2: The use of composition seats and diaphragms will provide: Maximum Flow - Minimum Droop - Minimum Seat Leakage Proportional Band Droop Build Offset Accumulation Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  25. Regulator Sizing Continued. . . • Rule 3: PRV and BPR DO NOT fail in the normal desired mode. Rule 4: Regulators are best when used in systems where flow changes are minor. Rule 5: DO NOT rely on a regulator as a shut off device. Rule 6: Never hydro-statically test a regulator. Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  26. Application and Selection Requirements • What is the service fluid? • Inlet Pressure (P1) • Outlet Pressure (P2) • Flow Rate or Pipe Size • Temperature Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  27. Technical Bulletins • Features • Standard/General specifications. • Principal of operation. • Technical specifications • Design pressure/temperature • Maximum allowable pressure drops. • Trim combinations/Temp ranges. • Capacity Tables • Dimensions & Weights Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference

  28. Mile High Industrial and Automation Conference