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Rotter and Mischel. Chapter 12. Outline. Biography of Rotter Predicting Specific Behaviors Predicting General Behaviors Maladaptive Behavior Psychotherapy. Cont’d. Outline. Biography of Mischel Background of the Cognitive-Affective Personality System

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Rotter and mischel

Rotter and Mischel

Chapter 12


  • Biography of Rotter

  • Predicting Specific Behaviors

  • Predicting General Behaviors

  • Maladaptive Behavior

  • Psychotherapy



  • Biography of Mischel

  • Background of the Cognitive-Affective Personality System

  • Cognitive-Affective Personality System

  • Related Research

  • Critique of Cognitive Social Learning Theory

  • Concept of Humanity

Biography of rotter
Biography of Rotter

  • Born in Brooklyn in 1916

  • In high school, he became familiar with the writings of Freud and Adler

  • In 1941, received a Ph.D in clinical psychology from Indiana University

  • Moved to the University of Connecticut in 1963 and has remained there since his retirement

Predicting specific behaviors
Predicting Specific Behaviors

  • Behavior Potential

  • Expectancy

  • Reinforcement Value

  • Psychological Situation

  • Basic Predicting Formula

Predicting general behaviors
Predicting General Behaviors

  • Generalized Expectancies

  • Needs

    • Categories of needs

    • Need components

  • General Prediction Formula

  • Internal and External Control of Reinforcement

  • Interpersonal Trust Scale

Maladaptive behavior
Maladaptive Behavior

  • Rotter defined maladaptive behavior as any persistent behavior that fails to move a person closer to a desired goal

  • It is usually the result of unrealistically high goals in combination with low ability to achieve them


  • Changing Goals

    • The role of the therapist

      • Help patients understand the faulty nature of their goals

      • Teach them ways to strive toward realistic goals

  • Eliminating Low Expectancies

Biography of mischel
Biography of Mischel

  • Born in Vienna in 1930

  • Second son of upper-middle-class parents

  • When the Nazis invaded Austria in 1938, his family left for the U.S.

  • Received his Ph.D from Ohio State University where he worked under Rotter

  • Has taught at Colorado, Harvard, Stanford, and Columbia, where he remains as an active researcher

Background of the cognitive affective personality system
Background of the Cognitive-Affective Personality System

  • Consistency Paradox

    • Although both laypeople and professionals tend to believe that behavior is quite consistent, research suggests that it is not

  • Person-Situation Interaction

    • Mischel believes that behavior is best predicted from an understanding of the person, thesituation, and theinteraction between person and situation

Cognitive affective personality system
Cognitive-Affective Personality System

  • Behavior Prediction

    • Individuals should behave differently as situations vary

  • Situation Variables

    • All those stimuli that people attend to in a given situation

  • Cognitive-Affective Units

    • Encoding strategies

    • Competencies and self-regulatory strategies

    • Expectancies and beliefs

    • Goals and values

    • Affective Responses

Related research
Related Research

  • Locus of Control and Health-Related Behaviors

    • Smoking (Bunch & Schneider, 1991; Norman, 1995)

    • Alcohol abuse (Jih, Sirgo, & Thomure, 1995)

    • Unwise eating (Ludtke & Schneider, 1996)

Critique of social learning theory
Critique of Social Learning Theory

  • High on Generating Research, Internal Consistency, Parsimony, and Ability to Organize Knowledge

  • Average on its ability to Guide Action and to be Falsified

Concept of humanity
Concept of Humanity

  • Free Choice over Determinism

  • Teleology over Causality

  • Conscious over Unconscious

  • Culture over Biology

  • Uniqueness over Similarity

  • Rotter's view is slightly more optimistic whereas Mischel's is about in the middle