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HTML

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  1. HTML Softsmith Infotech

  2. HTML • Introduction • Creation • Tags • Text • List • Image • Background • Link • Table • Frames • Forms Softsmith Infotech

  3. Introduction • SGML – Standard Generalized Markup Language (1986) • Mother of HTML and XML • Describing document types in many field of human activity (clinical records to musical notations) • Used in Aerospace, Defense, Semiconductor and Publishing industries Softsmith Infotech

  4. SGML - Barriers • Lack of widely supported style sheets • Complex and unstable software • Obstacles to interchange SGML data • SGML renamed as Sounds Good, May be Later. Softsmith Infotech

  5. HTML • Hyper Text Markup Language • Hypertext – Dealing with links • Markup – Designing documents with some styles or lay outs • HTML document is a plain text file • HTML recognized by Web Browser Softsmith Infotech

  6. HTML Creation • Use Notepad or any text editor • Type contents and save with a .htm or .html extension • Eg. MyPage.html • FrontPage, MS Word allows us to create web pages without any prior knowledge in HTML. Just save as web page and you will get the effect. Softsmith Infotech

  7. Why to learn HTML? • HTML is the glue that holds all web pages together. • You can use tags that the editor does not support. • You can read the code of other people's pages, and "borrow" the effects. • You can do the work yourself, when the editor simply refuses to create the effects you want. Softsmith Infotech

  8. First Web Page <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> </BODY> </HTML> Softsmith Infotech

  9. TAGS • Instructs the browser to do some operation. • Pillar of HTML • Start Tag and End Tag • <Start TAG> • </End TAG> • Few examples: • <BODY>, <HTML> etc • Every tag may or may not have Attributes. • <BODY BGCOLOR=“tan”> Softsmith Infotech

  10. Adding Text • Anything that we type between the tags <BODY> and </BODY> will appear on the browser. • Many formatting tags are available. Softsmith Infotech

  11. Text Formatting • <BASEFONT>, <FONT>, <B>, <I>, <U>, <BR>, <STRONG>, <EM>, <SUB>, <SUPER>, <BLINK>, <STRIKE>, <Hx> • x = 1 to 6 (1 being the largest and 6 being the smallest) • <BLINK> works only in netscape. • <BIG>, <SMALL> Softsmith Infotech

  12. Text Layout • <CENTER> • <DIV> (same as <P>) • <P> • <P ALIGN = “”> </P> • Right • Left • Center • Justify Softsmith Infotech

  13. HTML Lists • Ordered List • <OL TYPE = “circle”><OL> • TYPE can be circle or square or disc • If TYPE is left, by default we have Numbers. • TYPE can also take values like A, a, i, I • We can configure the numbering to start from a particular value with the help of “start” attribute. • Unordered list • <UL TYPE=“circle”></UL> • TYPE can be circle or square or disc Softsmith Infotech

  14. Images • JPEG or GIF images are recognized by browsers • <IMG> tag will place image on your page • The attribute SRC, tells the location from which the image is to be taken • We can control size of the image (width and height attributes) • The attribute ALT will say the text to be displayed in the place of image, if image not found. Softsmith Infotech

  15. Images • The attribute BORDER specifies the thickness of border around the image. • Hspace and Vspace attributes allows us to add space to the left-right sides and top-bottom sides • Aligning images is also possible with the align property Softsmith Infotech

  16. Hyperlink • <A> - Anchor tag • Its attribute – HREF will be the page to which we will be redirected. • <A HREF=“Second.html”>Click Here</A> • Click Here will appear in the browser like this Click Here Softsmith Infotech

  17. Specifying Colors for Links • Define colors for all links on the page. • <body link="#C0C0C0" vlink="#808080" alink="#FF0000"> • Link – Unvisited link • Vlink – Visited link • Alink – Active link (Color of the link when mouse is on it) Softsmith Infotech

  18. Specifying Colors for Links • Define colors for individual links on the page. • Placing font tags between the <a href> and the </a> tag.Click <a href="http://www.softsmith.com"><font color=“Blue">here</font></a> to go to Softsmith. • Using a style setting in the <a> tag. Click <a href="http://www. softsmith.com" style="color: red">here</a> to go to Softsmith. Softsmith Infotech

  19. Link Target • By default, links will open in the current window • We can specify values for the Target attribute to change this behaviour. • _blank – new window • _self – same window • _parent – frame superior to the frame where the hyperlink is in • _top – Cancels all frame and loads in new window. • We can specify the name of the frame where the link need to be opened. Softsmith Infotech

  20. Internal Link • To create a link with in that page, add a name attribute to the anchor tag and specify that name from the place where you want that navigation <a name="chapter1">Some contents</a> Click <a href="#chapter1">here</a> to read chapter 1. Softsmith Infotech

  21. Link to Email • <a href="mailto:xyz@abc.com">Email Me</a> • This will appear in the page as Email Me • When we click that, we can compose mail and send it to that address. • We can even configure subject and body of the mail using the attributes subject and body. Softsmith Infotech

  22. Image Map • Helps us to use one image to navigate to multiple pages. • <img src="rainbow.gif" usemap = #example border=0> <map name=example><area shape=Rect Coords=0,0,29,29 Href="http://www.yahoo.com"> <area shape=Rect Coords=30,30,59,59 Href="http://www.hotbot.com"> </map> • Shape can be Circle or polygon also. Softsmith Infotech

  23. Backgrounds • For setting background of our page, we need to specify some properties in <BODY> tag. • BACKGROUND • BGCOLOR • BGSOUND • BGPROPERTIES Softsmith Infotech

  24. Tables • Help in arranging elements in our page in a neat way • Divide page into separate sections • Creating Menus • Adding form fields • Alignment of images Softsmith Infotech

  25. Table Creation • Table - <TABLE> </TABLE> • Row - <TR> </TR> • Column - <TD> </TD> <TABLE BORDER=0> <TR> <TD> 1 </TD> <TD> 2 </TD> </TR> </TABLE> Softsmith Infotech

  26. Table Attributes • Align – left, right, center • Valign – top or bottom • Background • Bgcolor • Border • Bordercolor • Bordercolordark - shadow • Cellpadding • Cellspacing • Nowrap – protects from line break • Frame – deals with border adjustment – void, above, below, lhs, rhs, hsides, vsides, box • Width Softsmith Infotech

  27. Row / Column attributes • All property of table. • Height • Only for TD • Rowspan – Merging rows • Colspan – Merging columns • nowrap Softsmith Infotech

  28. Frames • Divides screen into separate areas • Each frame can contain a HTML document • <frameset> tag is used to create a frame. • Ended with </frameset> tag • Attributes • Cols • Rows Softsmith Infotech

  29. Resizing and Scrolling • By default, we can resize frames. • If we don’t want to resize them, we can specify the same using the attribute “noresize”. • If we don’t need scroll bars, we can specify scrolling attribute as no. • <frame src="menu.html" name="menu" noresize scrolling=no> • If we give scrolling=auto, scroll bar will appear if needed. Otherwise it wont. Softsmith Infotech

  30. HTML Forms • Most widely used in web applications • Has several elements • Created with in <BODY> • Use <FORM> </FORM> tags to define elements of form • Attributes • Action – URL to be navigated on submit • Method – GET or POST Softsmith Infotech

  31. Form Fields • Text • Password • Hidden • Text area • Submit button • Cancel button • Image button • Check box • Radio button • Drop down menu Softsmith Infotech

  32. Text / Password / Hidden • <Input type = “text” name = “UserId” value=“user”> • <Input type = “password” name=“pwd” value=“pwd”> • <Input type = “hidden” name=“hide” value=“hide”> Softsmith Infotech

  33. Text Area • <textarea cols=20 rows=20 name=“txtarea”>Text area</textarea> • Cols and rows specifies how many columns and rows will the text are occupy on our page. • Name – Program will use this name to refer to the element • Tabindex and wrap are other properties • Tabindex – order of tab focus • Wrap • Off – no line breaks • Virtual – for appearance line breaks will be there • Physical – Exact replica of what we type Softsmith Infotech

  34. Check box • <input type="checkbox" name="option1" value=" Java "> Java<br><input type="checkbox" name="option2" value=" Oracle " checked> Oracle <br><input type="checkbox" name="option3" value=" Net "> .Net <br> • For Radio button, the type need to be given as “radio” Softsmith Infotech

  35. Dropdown List • Using Select tag we can define dropdown menu • Select tag has attributes like • Name • Size • Multiple • Option tag defines values in the list • <select name=“ddl”> <option Value=“1”>1</option> <option Value=“2”>2</option> </select> Softsmith Infotech

  36. Submit / Reset / Image Button • <input type="submit" value="Send me your name!"> • <input type=“reset" value=“Reset"> • <input type=“image" src=“image.gif“ name=“image”> Softsmith Infotech

  37. Special Characters • &nbsp • &copy • &gt • &lt Softsmith Infotech

  38. HTML Comments • Starts with • <!- - • Ends with • - -> Softsmith Infotech

  39. META Tag • <META> tag has information related to search engines and browsers • Later its use was not recommended • If page content and description doesn’t match, search engines report that page as SPAM • Based on the keywords, search engines search the keywords present in META tag of the page Softsmith Infotech

  40. HTML Hex Colors • RGB Style • #RGB • Safe 216 colors • R – 00, 33, 66, 99, CC, FF • G – 00, 33, 66, 99, CC, FF • B – 00, 33, 66, 99, CC, FF Softsmith Infotech