February 10, 2014 Objectives: Students will be able to explain the main beliefs of Judaism and Shintoism Question: Who founded Confucianism? Agenda: Notes/worksheet on Shinto and Judaism
Judaism • Worldwide: 14,551,000 Jews • US: 5.6 million • Asia: 4.5 million • Europe: 2.4 million • Many different groups/divisions of Judaism that exist • Conflicting beliefs about observances, etc.
Importance of History *The basis of the Jewish religion is its history. It is the most important aspect. • demonstrated through the celebration of life cycle events in people’s lives • holiday celebrations commemorate historic events • The key event is the Exodus from Egypt (recorded Book of Exodus) • Many important aspects of observances are linked to this event
Judaism as a Race • Judaism is an ethnic religion • Began as a religion of an extended family, a tribe of peoples known as the Hebrews • Jewish people today continue to think of themselves as a family, a nation of peoples, as well as a religion
Sacred Texts • The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh • Known by Christians as "Old Testament“ • contains the same books as the Christian version but in a different order after the first five • Considered revealed and inspired by God • Interpretation of early history of the Hebrew people, establishment of a nation • Story of God’s interaction with His "Chosen People" (His-Story) • Foundation of Jewish life • Called the Bible • (Biblia) means "little books“ • Actually a library of 39 independent books divided into 3 categories:
The 3 Categories • Torah • Most important text • Divine instruction and guidance or "Written Law” • Books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy • Covers history from creation through the Exodus and wandering in the desert • 613 commandments from God
Continued… 2. Prophets: Words and revelations of the minor and major prophets • Ezekiel, Isaiah, Amos, Jonah, etc. 3. Writings: poetic and devotional material written and used during the same time as the Prophets, words and works of the sages • Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Ruth, Esther, Daniel, etc.
The Talmud • Oral tradition passed to Moses and beyond • Finally written down in the 2nd century • Contains info on rituals, marriages, agricultural laws, festivals, etc.
The “Name” of God • Written by Hebrew consonants YHVH • Means “I am” • Jews do not have a personal name for God • Christians and others have Anglicized it to Yahweh or Jehovah • Written by Orthodox Jews as G-d • God referred to as: • Adonai (The Lord)
Jews do not believe in "original sin" (no need for a "savior" in the Christian sense) The Ten Commandments first 4 have to do with our relationship with God Next 6 refer to our relationship with other people A Few Main Beliefs
Rebellion against God and consequential expulsion Adam and Eve Who is the Messiah? Has not arrived yet to usher in a new age He is expected Problem for Humans
Life after Death • Emphasis on good life on earth more than good afterlife • References in Psalms to heaven and hell • Influenced by Zoroastrians? • Lack specific descriptions of life beyond death
Rituals • Jewish calendar based on lunar month • Sabbath/Shabbat • Observed each week • Sundown on Fridaysundown on Saturday • Rosh Hashanah • New year • Begins the Days of Awe • Concentrate on prayer, contemplation, self-searching • Yom Kippur • 10th day (of awe) • Holiest day observed • Repentance: 24 hours of atonement and fasting
Chanukkah Celebrated rededication of Jerusalem temple in 164 BCE (after destruction by Greeks) Sacred oil lasted 8 days for celebration Minor festival continued
Passover • Most important holiday • Marks deliverance form slavery in Egypt under Moses’ leadership • Sacred meal: seder • Unleavened bread (matzah)
Mitzvah • Boys: 13+1 day, girls 12+1 day • Bar Mitzvah means “son of the commandment” • Commands from God • No immediate reward • Obedience rewards in afterlife