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  1. Output from Analysis GEOG370 Instructor: Christine Erlien

  2. Overview • Maps as communication tools • Objective/purpose • Audience • Knowledge transfer • Choices & conventions • Map Design & Constraints • Types of Cartographic Output • Types of Non-cartographic Output

  3. Output • Final product of any analysis • Should communicate effectively • What did you do? • What do your results mean? • Types of output • Permanent or Ephemeral • Permanent: Hardcopy (e.g., paper, Mylar) • Ephemeral: Stored, viewable files

  4. Maps as Communication Tools • Possibilities are many: • GIS software readily available • Many GIS analysts; varied levels of experience with cartographic production & design • So, must have mapping standards that these many cartographers aim for

  5. Cartographic Output • Objective: That viewers understand the map’s meaning • In making a map, then, be aware of: • The map’s purpose/intended use • The audience • Cartographer’s aim: Create a product that allows knowledge transfer to the map user

  6. Cartographic Output • Is there one correct map? • Monmonier (Mapping It Out)  No • So what do you do? • Look carefully at your data • Experiment with different representations/classifications • Weigh requirements of analysis & readers’ likely perceptions • Consider presenting multiple views of data

  7. Thematic Map Design • Involves a lot of decision-making: • Scale • Projection • Symbology • Color • Organization • Selection • Generalization • Placement • So, plan ahead! & • Allow your plan to be guided by tradition

  8. Cartographic Conventions Fonts • Usually one is enough • But if you use more than 1 • Serif typically used for physical features (e.g., rivers, lakes) • Sans-serif used for cultural features (names of countries, cities, towns, streets, buildings). Why? • Street names  Sans-serif • Oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, other hydrographic features  italicized serif • Idea of flow • Oceans & lakes  all capitals • Rivers  capitals with lower case • Legibility limit: 3 - 5 font http://www.swgc.mun.ca/~cburden/2000/Cartographic%20Conventions.pdf

  9. Cartographic Conventions Point Features • Label up & to the right (unless If crowds other labels or features) • Should be parallel to the graticule • Avoid overlapping Linear features • Label on top (to the north) of the line • Rivers or streets  curve the label if necessary but place the label where the feature bends the least • Roads are usually solid or dashed lines, railways are hatched, and trails are often dotted lines. • For rivers, thoughtful placement of the labels for the main flow and tributary can make it clear which is the tributary • Example: Red Deer River flows into the Saskatchewan River Red Deer River is all together but Saskatchewan is placed on the river before the Red Deer River meets it, and the word River comes after, making it clear that the Red Deer River is the tributary http://www.swgc.mun.ca/~cburden/2000/Cartographic%20Conventions.pdf

  10. Cartographic Conventions Polygons • Lettering for extensive land areas (e.g., Canada) should be extended or stretched. • As a rule, dot patterns are preferable to line patterns • Why? Strong directional character makes line patterns disturbing • Cross-hatched lines are OK • Easily distinguished from dot patterns • Available in a range of densities • Do not have the disturbing directional character of simple parallel lines • If you're going to use many attributes in the legend, group symbology Example: 3 sub-types of one type of soil get different shades of grey, while 3 sub-types of another type of soil get different intensities of crosshatching and the remaining types get dots http://www.swgc.mun.ca/~cburden/2000/Cartographic%20Conventions.pdf

  11. Cartographic Conventions Color • Colour (or hue) is typically used to differentiate categories (e.g., commercial versus residential land uses) while color intensity is assigned to numerical value (e.g., darker colours indicate higher numbers or densities) • Elevation  dark green, light green, yellow, orange, red and brown for increasing elevations • Bathymetry (water depth)  progressively darker blue indicates increasing depth • Levels of intensity are best perceived in red and least easily in yellow. Blue also works well. • Colors for particular features • Highways are red; less important roads are black; contour lines are brown; • forests and vegetative cover are green; barren/snowcapped areas are white; hydrological features like rivers,lakes and oceans are blue; the ground (i.e., figure background) is usually white, gray or blue (if an ocean is involved);

  12. Cartographic Conventions • North is typically at the top of the map • Map elements (e.g., scale, north arrow)  recessive locations on the map • Minimize dead areas  fill them up with map elements • Nonvital areas of the map figure itself can have map elements placed on top of them • Map symbology should mimic the real world • Examples: Skull & crossbones to indicate site toxicity or danger; small triangle for a mountain summit • Overall, avoid homogeneity (e.g., the same lettering size for all labels, the same color for everything) • Logical use of contrasts is the essential tool for map compositions that are attractive and easily understood • Strive for a balanced composition of elements http://www.swgc.mun.ca/~cburden/2000/Cartographic%20Conventions.pdf

  13. Map Design Process • Visualization • Type of map • Features of interest • Basic layout • Symbology – colors, line weights, etc. • Classification – type, # of classes • Creating the map • Testing • Why? • How?

  14. Influences on Map Design • Controls • Purpose • Reality • Data • Conditions of use • Technical limits • Audience

  15. Influences on Map Design • Purpose • Substantive objective: Nature of data & breadth of purpose (reference or thematic map) • Affective objective: How to convey the appropriate message • Reality • Complexity of the study area may place constraints on name placement, symbol sizes/styles, shading patterns

  16. Influences on Map Design • Nature of data • Abundance of classes  people can separate only 8-10 shades of a color • Grouping with color or pattern to differentiate groups • Scale • Decrease in scale  decrease in detail • Conditions of use • Field use, lighting conditions • Technical limits • Color choice may be limited by printer’s sophistication

  17. Influences on Map Design • Audience • Experienced vs. inexperienced • Older vs. younger • Text size • Color schemes • Color blindness • Issues distinguishing red from green • Avoid confusion by altering lightness & darkness of colors • Skip over one of the offending colors  use a scheme that goes red to blue and leaves out the greens • Other successful color combinations: blues & yellows, magenta-violets & yellow-reds and blue, green, yellow sequences

  18. http://www.personal.psu.edu/cab38/ColorBrewer/ColorBrewer.htmlhttp://www.personal.psu.edu/cab38/ColorBrewer/ColorBrewer.html

  19. Types of Cartographic Output • Reference maps • Thematic maps • Dot maps • Graduated symbol maps • Choropleth map • Isarithmic maps • Stepped statistical surfaces • Fishnet maps/wire-frame diagrams • Cartograms • Network maps • Flow maps • Flyovers

  20. http://www.unl.edu/nac/conservation/atlas/Map_Html/Demographics/National/Minority_Operated_Farms/1997.htmhttp://www.unl.edu/nac/conservation/atlas/Map_Html/Demographics/National/Minority_Operated_Farms/1997.htm

  21. http://goliath.frostburg.edu/rpotts0/ProportionalCircleMapB.jpghttp://goliath.frostburg.edu/rpotts0/ProportionalCircleMapB.jpg

  22. http://mapmaker.rutgers.edu/355/links.html

  23. http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~ordpics/115137At10TRFigA4.gif

  24. http://personal.uncc.edu/lagaro/cwg/color/Choropleth-5Good.gifhttp://personal.uncc.edu/lagaro/cwg/color/Choropleth-5Good.gif

  25. http://www.ilstu.edu/~jrcarter/Geo204/Choro/

  26. http://www.d.umn.edu/geog/cartfolder/HTML%20Pages/Isarithmic1.htmhttp://www.d.umn.edu/geog/cartfolder/HTML%20Pages/Isarithmic1.htm

  27. Fishnet Map http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Geophysics/4Dseismic/Reports/Jan20_2004/fig3.html

  28. Cartograms • Non-traditional • Have the appearance of maps • Spatial arrangement modified by value of variable being measured • Called “value by area” maps • Can be contiguous or non-contiguous • Contiguous: Areas are touching • Non-contiguous: Areas are not touching

  29. Cartogram From B.D. Dent, Cartography (1996)

  30. Network Map http://virtualskies.arc.nasa.gov/research/tutorial/tutorial2b.html

  31. Flow Map From B.D. Dent, Cartography (1996)

  32. Flyovers

  33. Mapping on the Internet • Distributed GIS • Client: Map user • Server: Map/spatial data provider • Viewing, browsing, sharing • Query & analysis • Examples Durham Interactive Maps Durham Crime Mapper The Rome Map National Atlas (http://nationalatlas.gov/) allows you to download data

  34. Noncartographic Output • Interactive output • 911  electronic response • Routing deliveries • Map & text-based output • Mapquest • Map & text-based output • Automobile onboard navigation

  35. Non-cartographic Output • Tables & charts • Importance of readability • Include if enhance mapped info • Digital photographs

  36. Wrapping Up • Why is map design in GIS important? • What kinds of decisions needs to be made in designing and organizing maps? • What are some types of cartographic output? Non-cartographic output? • Give examples of situations in which or datasets for which the various cartographic/non-cartographic types of output could be used

  37. Responsibilities in mapping • D. Wood. 2002. Mapping as a kind of talk: Brian Harley and the confabulation of the inner and outer voice. Visual Communication 1(2): 139-161 • What’s the inner voice? • What’s the outer voice? • To which are we most responsible?

  38. Mapping as a kind of talk: Brian Harley and the confabulation of the inner and outer voice

  39. So…ethics • Ethics: Study of morals, and the moral choices to be made by individuals. • Describes the rules/standards governing the conduct of members of a society or a profession. • Ethics: Maps & Mapmakers • Maps are representations of the world. Mapmakers simply present the relationships of the world. There is no ethical onus to representing what is . . To presenting truth. OR • Maps are arguments presented in a two-dimensional plane, conclusions based on data selected to advance a proposition. Mapmakers are as responsible as anyone in any media for the arguments they present. Dr. Tom Koch, UBC, http://kochworks.com

  40. Dr. Tom Koch, UBC, http://kochworks.com