Capt. D . Byron Ashbrook, II Washington County Virginia Sheriff’s Office Criminal Investigation Division. SYNTHETIC DRUGS AN OVERVIEW . SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS. Origin and History:
Capt. D. Byron Ashbrook, II Washington County Virginia Sheriff’s Office Criminal Investigation Division SYNTHETIC DRUGSAN OVERVIEW
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • Origin and History: • The main ingredient was created in 1995 in the lab of organic chemist John W. Huffman at Clemson University. Huffman was conducting medical research of the effects of cannabinoids on the brain. He found no medical benefits -- only negative side effects. Unfortunately, marijuana users reproduced the recipe, creating (or attempting to create) a legal alternative to marijuana. 1 • K2 (and related products) contain synthetic chemicals (chemical compounds), such as JWH-018 and JWH-073 (and many others), that mimic THC by acting on the cannabinoid receptors in the brain. 1
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • Synthetic Cannabinoids • Street Names • K2 • SPICE • Kronic • Herbal Incense • Genie • Appearance and Makeup: • As Advertised: • Consists of a mixture of dried leaves from traditional herbal plants. They are various colors including green, brown, blonde and red.2 • REALITY: • The packages of synthetic marijuana are simply packages of common herbs sprayed down with the synthetic cannabinoid chemicals. 3 1 2
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • METHODS OF USE • Smoking via various smoking devices / rolling papers. MANY CONTAIN THE LABELS “NOT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION” “LEGAL HERBAL BLEND” 3 5 4
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS Where Purchased: Cost TO CONSUMER: $25 to $50 or higher depending on local Mark-Up COST TO DEALER: Approximately $4.50 to $8.00 per container depending on size. • Tobacco and Smoke Shops • Convenience Stores • Local Flea Markets • Internet • Most all are packaged and sold as Incense and labeled “Not for human Consumption”
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS: • increased heart rate, loss of consciousness, heavy sedation, paranoia, hallucinations, vomiting and psychotic episodes. 4 • NO STUDY HAS BEEN COMPLETED TO DETERMINE LONG TERM HEALTH EFFECTS! • THESE PRODUCTS ARE NOT REGULATED SO THERE IS NO TELLING WHAT YOU ARE ACTUALLY PUTTING INTO YOUR BODY. ACCORDING TO STUDIES MANY ADDITIONAL DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES HAVE BEEN FOUND IN THESE PRODUCTS.
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • LEGAL ISSUES: Code of Virginia • § 18.2-248.1:1. Penalties for possession, sale, gift, or distribution of or possession with intent to sell, give, or distribute synthetic cannabinoids; manufacturing. • (NEW LANGUAGE) • A. For the purposes of this title, synthetic cannabinoids means any substance that contains one or more ofthefollowing:cannabimimetic agents or that contains their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation, and any preparation, mixture, or substance containing, or mixed or infused with, any detectable amount of one or more ofthefollowing cannabimimetic agents.: 5
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • 1. "Cannabimimetic agents" means any substance that is within any of the following structural classes: • a. 2-(3-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol with substitution at the 5-position of the phenolic ring by alkyl or alkenyl, whether or not substituted on the cyclohexyl ring to any extent; • b. 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole or 1H-indol-3-yl-(1-napthyl)methane with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted on the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl or naphthyl ring to any extent; • c. 3-(1-naphthoyl)pyrrole with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthoyl ring to any extent; • d. 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)indene with substitution of the 3-position of the indene ring, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the naphthyl ring to any extent; or • e. 3-phenylacetylindole or 3-benzoylindole with substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent, whether or not substituted on the phenyl ring to any extent.
5 5 SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS § 18.2-248.1:1. Continued: The term cannabimimetic agents includes: • 5-(1,1-Dimethylheptyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP 47,497); • 5-(1,1-Dimethylhexyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP 47,497 C6 homolog); • 5-(1,1-Dimethyloctyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP 47,497 C8 homolog); • 5-(1,1-Dimethylnonyl)-2-[3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol (other name: CP 47,497 C9 homolog); • 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-018); • 1-butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-073); • 1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (other name: JWH-250); • 1-hexyl-3-(naphthalen-1-oyl)indole (other name: JWH-019); • 1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-200); • (6aR,10aR)-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl) -6a,7,10,10a-te trahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol (other name: HU-210). 5
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • § 18.2-248.1:1. Continued: Specifically Prohibited Compounds (ADDED 2012) • 1-pentyl-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-081); • 1-pentyl-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-122); • 1-pentyl-3-(2-chlorophenylacetyl)indole (other name: JWH-203); • 1-pentyl-3-(4-ethyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-210); • 1-pentyl-3-(4-chloro-1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: JWH-398); • 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (other name: AM-694); • 1-((N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: AM-1220); • 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (other name: AM-2201); • 1-[(N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole (other name: AM-2233); • Pravadoline (4-methoxyphenyl)-[2-methyl-1-(2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl)indol-3-y]methanone (other name: WIN 48,098); • 1-pentyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)indole (other name: RCS-4); • 1-(2-cyclohexylethyl)-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole (other name: RCS-8).
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • § 18.2-248.1:1. Continued: • B. It is unlawful for any person to knowingly or intentionally possess synthetic cannabinoids. Any person who violates this subsection is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. • C. It is unlawful for any person to sell, give, distribute, or possess with intent to sell, give, or distribute synthetic cannabinoids. Any person who violates this subsection is guilty of a Class 6 felony. 5
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • § 18.2-248.1:1. Continued: • F. Any drug not listed in this section or the Drug Control Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.), which is privately compounded, with the specific intent to circumvent the criminal penalties for synthetic cannabinoids, to emulate or simulate the effects of synthetic cannabinoids through chemical changes such as the addition, subtraction or rearranging of a radical or the addition, subtraction or rearranging of a substituent, shall be subject to the same criminal penalties as for synthetic cannabinoids. 5
SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS • MAJOR CHALLENGES: • Chemists are changing the compounds at an alarming rate which makes enforcement difficult.
BATH SALTS 11 9 10
BATH SALTS ACTIVE Compound(s) Effects: The effects are similar to that of cocaine, amphetamines, and ecstasy (MDMA). 8 • The active compound(s) contained in “Bath Salts” are: • Methylenedioxypyrovalerone(MDPV) • and ; or • Mephedrone • Both are synthetic stimulants and fall into the AMPHETAMINE class of Narcotics. **Note: There are many other variations of the above compounds used in Bath Salts i.e. Methylone, Flephedrone, Ethylone, and Butylone. 6
BATH SALTS • Street Names: • Vanilla Sky • White Lightning • Scarface • Cloud Nine • Ivory Wave 6 14 Also marketed as “PLANT FOOD” and “INSECT REPELLENT”7 7 8
BATH SALTS • Methods of Use: • Ingestion • Smoking • Inhaling • Injecting Labels often contain the Disclaimer: “Not for Human Consumption.” 12 13
BATH SALTS • Where Purchased: • Smoke Shops • Some Convenience Stores • Local Flea Markets • Internet • Cost to Consumer: • $ 25 to $50 • Depending on Local Mark-Up. • Cost to Dealer: • $4.50 to $ 10.00 depending on quantity. 14
BATH SALTS • ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS: • Dizziness and vomiting Profuse sweating Agitation and paranoia Insomnia Hallucinations Seizures Increased heart rate and chest pains Suicidal thoughts Panic attacks and psychosis Death 10
BATH SALTS Man high on bath salts kills neighbor's goat, police say CHARLESTON, W.Va. -- Police say an Alum Creek man high on bath salts killed his neighbor's pygmy goat and that neighbors found him in his bedroom, dressed in a bra and panties, next to the dead animal, said Lt. Bryan Stover of the Kanawha County Sheriff's Department. Mark Thompson, 19, of Greenview Road, is charged with animal cruelty after police got a call from a woman who said he stole her goat at about 3:15 a.m. Monday, Stover said. Source: The Charleston Gazette 11 Thompson allegedly told police he was on bath salts for about three days. 11
BATH SALTS • LEGAL ISSUES Code of Virginia: • The active compounds in Bath Salts; Methylenedioxypyrovalerone and Mephedrone, as well as twenty four (24) derivatives and related compounds are classified as SCHEDULE I per § 54.1-3446
BATH SALTS • § 54.1-3446. Schedule I. • 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (other name: MDPV); • 4-methylmethcathinone (other names: mephedrone, 4-MMC); • 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (other name: methylone); • Naphthylpyrovalerone (other name: naphyrone); • 4-fluoromethcathinone (other name: flephedrone, 4-FMC); • 4-methoxymethcathinone (other names: methedrone; bk-PMMA); • Ethcathinone (other name: N-ethylcathinone); • 3,4-methylenedioxyethcathinone (other name: ethylone); • Beta-keto-N-methyl-3,4-benzodioxyolybutanamine (other name: butylone); • N,N-dimethylcathinone (other name: metamfepramone); • Alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: alpha-PPP);
BATH SALTS • § 54.1-3446. Schedule I. continued…. 12. 4-methoxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: MOPPP); 13. 3,4-methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: MDPPP); 14. Alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (other name: alpha-PVP); 15. 6,7-dihydro-5H-indeno-(5,6-d)-1,3-dioxol-6-amine (other name: MDAI); 16. 3-fluoromethcathinone (other name: 3-FMC) 17. 4-Ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (other name: 2C-E); 18. 4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (other name: 2C-I); 19. 4-Methylethcathinone (other name: 4-MEC); 20. 4-Ethylmethcathinone (other name: 4-EMC); 21. N,N-diallyl-5-methoxytryptamine (other name: 5-MeO-DALT); 22. Beta-keto-methylbenzodioxolylpentanamine (other name: Pentylone, bk-MBDP); 23. Alpha-methylamino-butyrophenone (other name: Buphedrone); 24. Alpha-methylamino-valerophenone (other name: Pentedrone); 25. 3,4-Dimethylmethcathinone (other name: 3.4-DMMC); 26. 4-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (other name: MPPP); 4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (other names: 25-I, 25I-NBOMe); Methoxetamine (other names: MXE, 3-MeO-2-Oxo-PCE); 4-Fluoromethamphetamine (other name: 4-FMA); 4-Fluoroamphetamine (other name: 4-FA).
BATH SALTS • § 18.2-250. Possession of controlled substances unlawful. • (a) Any person who violates this section with respect to any controlled substance classified in Schedule I or II of the Drug Control Act shall be guilty of a Class 5 felony.
BATH SALTS • § 18.2-248. Manufacturing, selling, giving, distributing….. • C. Except as provided in subsection C1, any person who violates this section with respect to a controlled substance classified in Schedule I or II shall upon conviction be imprisoned for not less than five nor more than 40 years and fined not more than $500,000.
BATH SALTS • Bath Salts…..Generation 2 : • Generation 2 of Bath Salts have been hitting the internet market already, with the DEA's temporary ban of MDPV, Mephedrone. • Naphyrone has been found in samples of what is being labeled online as "Cosmic Blast" a "jewelry cleaner". There are products (of substances unknown) that are on the internet labeled as "IPOD/Phone Screen Cleaner" and other various covers, as it appears that "bath salts" became too viral of a product name and drug dealers have now moved on to other, more obscure product naming schemes.8 • Some are calling this product “SYNTHETIC COCAINE.”9 15
BATH SALTS • Generation 2 continued….. • NaphyroneSideEffects: Is in the stimulant family and can inhibit seratonin uptake which can effect the body’s ability to regulate temperature. Long term effects are not known. 8 • Dr. Christopher Long stated in reference to Naphyrone Side Effects: “There’s no stop to it, so your body temperature goes up well over 100, maybe 106, 7, 108 — in which case you’d fry your own brains.” 9
BATH SALTS • MAJOR CHALLENGES: • Chemists are changing the compounds at an alarming rate which makes enforcement difficult. • Dealers are changing the product names, today’s Bath Salts will be marketed as tomorrow’s Screen Cleaner, Air Freshener etc.
WORKS CITED • PHOTOS • Photo #1: http://stopthedrugwar.org/topics/drug_war_issues/specific_drugs/synthetic_cannabinoids • Photo # 2: http://californiaexaminer.net/2011/11/18/beware-of-k2-new-potent-drug-on-the-market/ • Photo # 3 : http://www.myspace.com/mrspiceguyincense • Photo # 4: http://pimabeddo.mobie.in/index?__xtblog_entry=4fa895b28e21066a4b000000 • Photo # 5: http://www.wmicentral.com/news_premium/synthetic-marijuana---bad-behavior-by-navajo-county-parolees/article_cabc9498-3b14-11e1-9b25-001871e3ce6c.html/ • Photo # 6: http://www.wbrz.com/news/banned-bath-salts-rounded-up-by-authorities • Photo # 7: http://www.independentmail.com/news/2011/oct/21/federal-drug-agency-ban-makes-bath-salts-illegal-n/ • Photo # 8 : http://gothamist.com/2011/06/29/dea_bath_salt_bust_takes_2_million.php • Photo # 9: http://www.accessrx.com/blog/current-health-news/bath-salts-cocaine-meth-mdpv-b0124 • Photo # 10: http://www.care2.com/news/member/556653422/2707228 • Photo # 11: http://lacrossetribune.com/news/local/article_aa2edc6a-d12c-11e0-bf91-001cc4c002e0.html • Photo # 12: http://www.talberthouse.org/blog/the-dangers-of-bath-salts/ • Photo # 13: http://www.finlandiaroar.org/community/marijuana-cocaine-and-bath-salts/ • Photos # 14: http://www.stsfirst.com/blog/index.asp?offset=-1 • Photo # 15: http://blogs.riverfronttimes.com/dailyrft/assets_c/2011/08/cosmic%20blast-thumb-214x202.jpg
WORKS CITED • BIBLIOGRAPHY • 1: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-03-02/opinion/fay.ban.k2_1_thc-k2-marijuana?_s=PM:OPINION • 2: http://alcoholism.about.com/od/tipsforparents/a/legal_bud.htm • 3: http://www.plg-pllc.com/resources/articles/a-parents-guide-to-synthetic-marijuana-kent-injury-lawyer/ • 4: http://weatherforddemocrat.com/x176916707/K2-causes-health-problems-with-use • 5: http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?000+cod+18.2-248.1C1 • 6: http://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/directors-page/messages-director/2011/02/bath-salts-emerging-dangerous-products • 7: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/dangerous-high-ivory-wave-street-drug-sold-bath/story?id=12600896 • 8: http://www.hdap.org/mdpv.html • 9: http://blogs.riverfronttimes.com/dailyrft/assets_c/2011/08/cosmic%20blast-thumb-214x202.jpg • 10: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_side_effects_of_snorting_bath_salt • 11: http://www.wvgazette.com/News/201105020871