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Thinkers of the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. Lecture Essential Question: How do thinkers challenge and change society?. Background. What :

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thinkers of the scientific revolution and enlightenment

Thinkers of the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

Lecture Essential Question:

How do thinkers challenge and change society?

  • What:
    • The Scientific Revolution: A period that saw a revolutonary transformation in scientific ideas in physics, astronomy, and biology, in institutions supporting scientific investigation, and in the more widely held picture of the universe generally accepted today.
    • The Enlightenment: A period of time that slightly overlapped the Scientific Revolution during which European thinkers applied the scientific method to analyzing society, government and religion. EXTREMELY influential on modern government systems.
  • Where: Europe—very important because these scientific and social theories were influential in allowing Europeans to achieve world domination between the 16th and 19th Centuries.
  • When:
    • Scientific Revolution:
      • 16th and 17th Centuries
    • Enlightenment:
      • : 17th and 18th Centuries
  • How:
    • New knowledge transmitted from Muslim regions after Crusades
    • That knowledge inspired the Renaissance in Italy which spread North
    • As feudalism declined and Absolute Monarchs took over, people relied less on the Church
    • Church sees challenges during Protestant Reformation
    • Reformation allows people to question authority
    • More people become literate due to translation of Bible and printing press.
  • Why:
    • As the Catholic Church lost power and influence people began to think for themselves and challenge tradition.
  • Who
    • Thinkers of the Scientific Revolution
the original theorists

First envisioned the geocentric model in ancient Egypt


Supported Ptolemy’s theory through deduction (thinking)—not observation

Quote: “The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance.”

Theories of both were incorporated into the Bible and supported by Catholic Church

The Original Theorists
1473-1543 (15th-16th Centuries

Heliocentric (sun-centered theory)

Studied planetary motion for 25 years

galileo galilei
Galileo Galilei
  • 1564-1642
  • Telescope
  • Experimented with acceleration (Challenged Aristotle)
  • Observed Jupiter’s moons and the rings on Saturn
  • Publicized heliocentric theory
  • Persecuted by Church
  • Recants (Eppur si muove)
  • Dies under house arrest
hammer and feather on the moon
Hammer and Feather On the Moon

Lectures Multimedia\Hammer and Feather.mp4

francis bacon
Francis Bacon
  • 1561-1626
  • Spelled out the Scientific Method
  • Suggested that because men have to shave daily, throughout life they suffer just as much as women do during pregnancies
  • Quote: “Knowledge is power.”
  • 1596-1650
  • Articulated (explained) the position that we define our own existence.
  • Quote: “Es cogito ergo sum”
  • Suggested that our brains and our bodies are two separate things:
    • Dualism
    • Challenged by modern science
isaac newton
Isaac Newton
  • 1643-1727
  • Universal Laws of Gravitation
    • Gravity
    • Prisms contain the colors of the rainbow
  • Demonstrated that gravity explains planetary motion
  • Quote: “Ouch!” (Hahahahaha—get it?)
  • “Plato is my friend—Aristotle is my friend—but my greatest friend is Truth.”
  • Who
    • Thinkers of the Enlightenment
      • Philosophes
thomas hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
  • 1588-1679
    • Born the same year as…?
  • Leviathan (1651)
  • Believed in Social Contract between leader and led
  • But Absolute Monarch
  • Why? Quote: “Life in the state of nature is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”
john locke
John Locke
  • 1632-1704
  • Social contract also
  • But with an elected leader
  • And Natural Rights:
    • Life
    • Liberty
    • Property
    • Became “pursuit of happiness” in D.O.I.
mary wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • 1759-1797
  • Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
  • Theory: Women are not naturally inferior to men—they just lack education.
  • Sadly, died in childbirth
  • Quote: “It would be an endless task to trace the various sorrows into which women are plunged by the prevailing opinion that they were created to feel rather than reason, and that all the power they obtain, must be obtained by their charms and weakness.”
  • 1694-1778
  • Satirist—wrote sarcastic social criticisms
  • Quotes:
    • “The Holy Roman Empire is neither holy, Roman nor an Empire”
    • “The secret of being a bore is to say everything you think.”
    • “Every man is guilty of all the good he did not do.”
    • “It is dangerous to be right in matters where established men are wrong.” (Think Galileo…)
    • “A witty saying proves nothing.”
  • 1689-1755
  • Separation of Powers
  • Power should check power
    • Checks and balances
  • Led to the U.S. branches of government
  • 1712-1778
  • Although earlier thinkers had talked about it, he finally defined the Social Contract
  • Rulers rule with the consent of the governed— so no more:
    • Absolute power
    • Divine right
    • Hereditary rule