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Student Development Theoretical PErspective. Instructor Course. Introduction. Student development theory and research is the basis of the student affairs profession in the college setting.

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introduction
Introduction
  • Student development theory and research is the basis of the student affairs profession in the college setting.
  • It provides us with data that allows us to place students we work with on a scale of “human development continuum”

(DiCaprio 1974, as sited in Forney, Evans & GuidoDiBrito, 1998)

schools of thought
Schools of thought
  • Four main schools of thought:
    • Psychological theories
    • Cognitive and Moral Development theories
    • Typology Theories
    • Person-Environment Theories
psychological theories
Psychological Theories
  • Personal and interpersonal perspective to development
  • Biological and psychological convergence

(Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)

erik erikson s
Erik Erikson’s

Eight stages of identity development

  • Infancy: trust vs. mistrust
  • Younger years: Autonomy vs. shame
  • Early Childhood: Initiative vs. guilt
  • Middle Childhood: Industry vs. Inferiority
  • Adolescence: Identity vs. diffusion
  • Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • Later Adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair

(Erikson,1959)

arthur chickering
Arthur Chickering

The seven vectors

  • Developing Competence
  • Managing Emotions
  • Moving through autonomy
  • Developing mature interpersonal Relationships
  • Establishing identity
  • Developing purpose
  • Developing integrity

(Chickering, 1990)

janet helms
Janet Helms
  • Phase 1: Abandonment of Racism
    • Status 1: Contact
    • Status 2: Disintegration
    • Status 3: Reintegration
  • Phase 2: Defining a Nonracist White Identity
    • Status 4: Pseudo-Independence
    • Status 5: Immersion-Emersion
    • Status 6: Autonomy
cognitive and moral development
Cognitive and Moral Development
  • These theories study the world view of individuals
  • How individuals develop cognitively and intellectually
  • It is a study of process not content

(Evans et al.,1998)

william perry
William Perry

Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development, 9 stages in three groups:

(Perry, 1970)

lawrence kohlberg
Lawrence Kohlberg

Six stages in three levels

  • Pre-conventional
    • Stage 1:  Egotistical Morality
    • Stage 2:  Relative, Instrumental Morality
  • Conventional
    • Stage 3:  Behavioral Morality
    • Stage 4:  Legal Morality
  • Post Conventional
    • Stage 5:  Social Morality
    • Stage 6:  of Universal Morality
carol gilligan
Carol Gilligan

Three levels with two transition periods:

  • Level 1:  Orientation to Individual Survival
    • Transition 1:  From Selfishness to Responsibility
  • Level 2:  Goodness as Self-Sacrifice
    • Transition 2:  From Goodness to Truth
  • Level 3:  The Morality of Nonviolence
typological theories
Typological Theories
  • These theories are primarily concerned with individual differences and how different people view and interpret the world around them

(Evans et al.,1998).

john holland
John Holland

Six personality types:

  • Realistic
  • Investigative
  • Artistic
  • Social
  • Enterprising
  • Conventional
david kolb
David Kolb

Learning Styles:

  • Diverging
  • Assimilating
  • Converging
  • Accommodating
myers briggs
Myers-Briggs

The four dichotomies:

  • Extraversion/Introversion
  • Sensing/Intuitive
  • Thinking/Feeling
  • Judging/Perceiving
person environment theories
Person-Environment Theories
  • These theories examine the relationship between the individual and his/her environment and how one interact and affect the other
alexander astin
Alexander Astin
  • Three elements: I-E-O
    • Inputs
    • Environment
    • Outcomes
  • Involvement
    • Investment of psychosocial and physical energy
    • Involvement is continuous, students invest varying energy
    • Involvement has qualitative and quantitative features
    • Development directly proportional to quality and quantity of involvement
    • Educational effectiveness is related to level of student involvement
vincent tinto
Vincent Tinto
  • Pre-entry Attributes
  • Goals/Commitments
  • Institutional Experiences
  • Integration
  • Outcomes
ernest pascarella
Ernest Pascarella

Five sets of variables

  • Student Background/Pre-college Traits
  • Structural/Organizational Characteristics
  • Institutional Environments
  • Interactions with Agents of Socialization
  • Quality of Student Effort
references
References

Chickering, A. W. (1990). Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F.  (1998).  Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice.  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Pascarella, E.T., & Terenzini, P.T.  (2005).  How college affects students: A third decade of research.

San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

references1
References

Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Sandeen, A. (1991). The Professional Student Affairs Administrator. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.