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Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Obesity in African-American Women Transitioning from Welfare to Work

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Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Obesity in African-American Women Transitioning from Welfare to Work. Mayola Rowser PhD, DNP, FNP-BC, PMHNP. Background. Rates of depression and obesity increasing in the U.S. Rates are higher among welfare recipients

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slide1
Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Obesity in African-American Women Transitioning from Welfare to Work

Mayola Rowser PhD, DNP, FNP-BC, PMHNP

background

Background

Rates of depression and obesity increasing in the U.S.

Rates are higher among welfare recipients

39% of recipients are African-American women

African American women have more health problems

than women of other races

background1
Background
  • Depression and obesity associated with many chronic diseases
  • Employment outcomes negatively impacted
  • Depression and obesity associated with increased health care costs
  • Few studies on depression and obesity among African-American women leaving welfare
conceptual framework
Conceptual Framework
  • Adaptation of Dr. Rice’s Health Assessment Status model
  • Rice’s model influenced by the Health Promotion model
  • Components of the model for the current study include
    • health risk behaviors
    • personal risk factors
    • perceived health status
    • situational influences
conceptual model
Conceptual Model
  • Health Risk Behaviors
  • Physical inactivity
  • Poor nutrition
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol consumption

Perceived Health Status

Depressive Symptoms

Obesity

  • Personal Risk Factors
  • Demographic
  • Age
  • Education

Biological

  • Body mass index

Situational Influences

Transition from welfare to work

significance
Significance
  • Welfare benefits are time limited
  • Recipients forced to find jobs
  • 90% of recipients have one or more barriers to work
  • Depression and obesity are barriers to sustained employment
research questions
Research Questions

1. What is the prevalence of depressive symptoms in

African-American women transitioning from welfare to work?

2. What is the prevalence of obesity in African-American women

transitioning from welfare to work?

3. What is the association between depressive symptoms and

obesity in African-American women transitioning from welfare to

work?

research questions1
Research Questions

4. What is the prevalence of health risk behaviors

in African-American women transitioning from

welfare to work?

5. To what extent do health risk behaviors, personal risk factors, and perceived health status predict depressive symptoms ?

6. To what extent do health risk behaviors, personal risk factors, and perceived health status predict obesity?

methodology
Methodology

Design

  • Retrospective cross-sectional, descriptive, correlation study

Sample and Setting

  • Convenience sample of 162 welfare recipients
  • UTHSC Health Works Program participants
  • Data obtained from health assessments
criteria
Criteria
  • African-American women
  • 18 years of age or older
  • Able to speak and read English
  • Enrolled in the UTHSC Health Works Program
instruments
Instruments
  • The Healthier People Network Health Risk Appraisal
  • The Health Self Report
  • The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)
data analysis
Data Analysis

Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)

  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Pearson Correlation
  • Stepwise Multiple Regression
  • Logistic Regression
sample characteristics
Sample Characteristics
  • N = 162
  • Ages ranged from 18 – 55
  • Mean age 28.87
  • 32% completed high school
  • 24% reported “some college”
  • 37% rated their health poor-fair
prevalence of obesity in african american women transitioning from welfare to work
Prevalence of Obesity in African-American Women Transitioning from Welfare to Work
slide16
Association between Depressive Symptoms and Obesity in African-American Women Transitioning from Welfare to Work
correlation analysis between sample characteristics and depressive symptoms and obesity
Correlation Analysis between Sample Characteristics and Depressive Symptoms and Obesity

†Perceived health status (n=161)

*p≤.05

**p≤.01

predictors of obesity in african american women transitioning from welfare to work
Predictors of Obesity in African-American Women Transitioning from Welfare to Work
predictors of obesity in african american women transitioning from welfare to work1
Predictors of Obesity in African-American Women Transitioning from Welfare to Work
conclusions
Conclusions
  • High levels of education among the women
  • Age correlated with obesity
  • No correlation between depressive symptoms and obesity
  • Perceived health correlated with depressive symptoms and obesity
limitations
Limitations
  • Instrumentation
  • Convenience sample
  • Cross sectional design
strengths
Strengths
  • Limited studies conducted on African-American women on welfare
  • Few studies on depressive symptoms and obesity in African-American women preparing for work
  • Predictors of depressive symptoms and obesity examined
practice and policy implications
Practice and Policy Implications
  • Recognition of depressive symptoms among African-American women
  • Unmet need for mental health services
  • Awareness of sociocultural influence on perceptions of weight
  • Funding for programs to address barriers to work
implications for future research
Implications for Future Research
  • Prospective studies needed to determine causal relationships
  • Qualitative studies to address perceptions of health
  • Risk reduction interventions
ad