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Intelligence: Measuring Mental Performance Chapter 9 Dr. Pelaez

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Intelligence: Measuring Mental Performance Chapter 9 Dr. Pelaez. What is Intelligence?. Intelligence does not mean the same thing to everyone (Neisser et al., 1996)

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Measuring Mental Performance

Chapter 9

Dr. Pelaez

what is intelligence
What is Intelligence?
  • Intelligence does not mean the same thing to everyone (Neisser et al., 1996)
  • There is still no single definition of intelligence. Different theorists have very different theories as to which attributes are core aspects of the construct they call intelligence.
  • Piaget (1970)
Psychometric Views of Intelligence

According to psychometric theorists, intelligence is a trait or a set of traits that characterizes some people to a greater extent than others.

  • Alfred Binet’s Singular Component Approach
    • Binet and Simon (1904)
  • Factor Analysis and the Multicomponent View of Intelligence
    • Spearman’s (1927) Factor Analysis and the “g” Factor
    • Thurstone’s Primary mental abilities
    • Guilford’s Structure-of-intellect model
    • Carroll’s Three-stratum theory of intelligence
Multicomponent View of Intelligence
  • Other psychometric theorists strongly believed that mental age was correlated to human intellectual performance.
  • They believed that intelligence tests required individuals to perform on a variety of tasks.
  • Individuals would perform in a large number of mental tasks and then their performances would be analyzed, using a method called factor analysis.
A Modern Information-Processing Viewpoint

Some psychometrics believe that the definitions of intelligence are very narrow, focusing primarily on intellectual content, or what a person knows, rather than on the processes by which this knowledge is acquired, retained, and used to solve problems.

  • Sternberg (1985)
    • Context
    • The Experimental Component
    • The Componential (or Information-Processing) Component
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  • Gardner (1983) is another theorist who criticizes the psychometricians for trying to describe a person’s intelligence with a single score.
  • He is know for his theory of multiple intelligences.
  • In his book, Frames of Mind, he proposes that humans display at least 7 distinctive kinds of intelligences.
how is intelligence measured
How is Intelligence Measured?
  • The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
  • The Wechsler Scales
    • WISC-III
    • WPPSI-R
  • Distribution of IQ Scores
    • A feature similar to all modern IQ tests is their normal distribution around an IQ of 100.
  • Group Tests of Mental Performance
    • Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT)
    • American College Test (ACT)
    • Graduate Record Examination (GRE)
how is intelligence measured continued
How is Intelligence Measured? (continued)

5. Newer Approaches to Intelligence Testing

  • The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)
  • Dynamic assessment

6. Assessing Infant Intelligence

  • Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley, 1969)
    • Motor Scale
    • Mental Scale
    • Infant Behavioral Record

7. Stability of IQ in Childhood and Adolescence

what do intelligence tests predict
What do Intelligence Tests Predict?
  • Scholastic Achievement
  • Vocational Outcomes
  • Health, Adjustment, and Life Satisfaction
factors that influence iq scores
Factors that Influence IQ Scores

The Evidence for Heredity

  • Twin Studies
  • Adoption Studies

The Evidence for Environment

  • Natural Experiments of Social Change
  • Adoption Studies
social and cultural correlates of intellectual performance
Social and Cultural Correlates of Intellectual Performance

Home Environment and IQ

  • Sameroff et al., (1993)
    • Assessing the character of the home environment
    • Does the HOME really predict IQ?

Birth Order, Family Size, and IQ

  • The smaller the family, the brighter the children
  • On average, first-borns outperform second-borns, who outperform third-borns, and so on.
social and cultural correlates of intellectual performance continued
Social and Cultural Correlates of Intellectual Performance(continued)

Social Class, Racial, and Ethnic Difference and IQ

  • Children from lower and working class homes average 10 to 15 points below their middle-class homes on standardized IQ tests.
  • There are no racial and ethnic differences in intellectual performance.

Why Do Groups Differ in Intellectual Performance?

  • Cultural Test Bias Hypothesis
  • Genetic Hypothesis
  • Environmental Hypothesis
improving cognitive performance through compensatory education
Improving Cognitive Performance Through Compensatory Education

Compensatory interventions are special educational programs designed to further the cognitive growth and scholastic achievements of disadvantaged children.

Head Start is a large-scale preschool educational program designed to provide children from low-income families with a variety of social and intellectual experiences that might better prepare them for school.

Improving Cognitive Performance Through Compensatory Education


Long-Term Follow-ups

  • Longitudinal studies show that program participants score higher in IQ than nonparticipants for 2 to 3 years after the interventions are over, but their IQ eventually declines.
  • Participants tend not to be assigned to special education classes, or be retained in a grade, therefore meeting their school’s basic requirements.
The Importance of Parental Involvement
  • The most effective early intervention programs involve parents in one way or another.
  • Two-generation programs tend to provide children with high-quality preschool education, and also provide disadvantaged parents with social support, education and vocational training.

The Importance of Intervening Early

  • Studies show evidence that high-quality preschool education that begins very early can have lasting intellectual benefits.
creativity and special talents
Creativity and Special Talents

What is Creativity?

  • The ability to generate novel ideas or works that are useful and valued by others.
  • It is important to individuals who must solve challenging problems on the job and in daily life, as well to society, when it underlies new inventions, new scientific discoveries, and innovations in social programs or the humanities that enrich our lives.
The Psychometric Perspective
  • J. P. Guilford’s (1967) structure-of-intellect model
    • Convergent thinking
    • Divergent thinking