GCSE Bread Making Research Context: Bread based snacks Design Theme: Savoury snack and dip products
BREAD FLOURS Bread-making flour is characterised by its tough stretchy gluten and high protein content. It is made using ‘hard wheat’ When the flour is mixed with water and kneaded, the resulting dough becomes very elastic in nature. As the dough ferments, carbon dioxide is produced and trapped in the dough by the gluten strands, causing it to rise. During baking, the gluten sets around the bubbles giving the bread a light and open texture.
Yeast Can be fresh or dried or fast acting dried yeast. The fast acting yeasytonly requires the bread to be kneaded once.
YEAST Yeast is an essential ingredient in bread making as it causes the bread to rise. It is a living organism and requires food, moisture and warmth to survive. When dehydrated, it will remain dormant until it becomes activated during the process of fermentation. Yeast causes the carbohydrates (initially sugars) present to ferment and produce carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 becomes trapped in the dough by the network of gluten strands, causing the dough to rise.
SALT Salt is added for flavour. It also helps the gluten develop to form the structure of the bread.
SUGAR Sugar is not essential but if added will speed up the activity of the yeast as it provides energy for the ‘living’ yeast organisms to work.
Fat – Butter / Margarine or oil Function?
FAT / OIL Fat and oil WEAKEN the gluten and restrict the action of the yeast. This gives the bread a closer texture.
Water Temperature? Functions?
WARM WATER Water is needed for the yeast to ferment. It is needed to bind the dough together and help in the development of gluten. Using warm water will speed up the action of the yeast. Cold water will still work but more slowly.
Conditions Needed As yeast is a living organism it needs 4 conditions for growth. Similarly to bacterial growth these are:- • Warmth • Time • Moisture • Food
Faults in Bread making • Loaf hasn’t risen – • Wrong flour – low gluten • Too much salt – yeast killed • Water too hot • Not enough kneading or proving • Dough over fermented • Not enough liquid = stiff dough = can’t expand
Faults in Bread making • Uneven or open texture • Dough not knocked back properly • Dough uncovered during rising
Faults in Bread making • Dough collapses when put in the oven • Over-proving
Faults in Bread making • Crust breaks from loaf • Under-proving • Dough dried out during proving • Oven too hot
Types of bread Bread may be leavened or unleavened. The difference is in the addition of a raising agent – i.e. Yeast or ........in soda bread for example baking powder / bicarbonate of soda / cream of tartar Leavened bread – has a raising agent added to it – e.g. Ciabatta / ‘normal’ sliced bread / rolls / naan bread Unleavened bread - has no raising agent added to it – it is basically rolled out flat e.g. Chapatti / tortilla / roti
Basic Bread Recipe Ingredients: 500g Strong white or wholemeal flour 10g Salt 5g Sugar (optional) 15g (½oz) margarine 7g sachet of dried yeast 250ml Warm water (37c)
Designing New Products Sketch two different design ideas for breadsticks. You must annotate your sketches to explain how your ideas meet each of the design criteria below. Do not draw any packaging. Here are the design criteria for the product. The product must .... • have sensory appeal • Include 2 different flavourings • be suitable for vegetarians • be attractive to the consumer
Mind Map Ideas ** Mind map ideas that you could use to improve a basic bread dough recipe
Design Idea 1 Product NameCaraway and Sesame Seed Breadsticks Design Criteria – (Design Specification) • have sensory appeal My breadsticks are crunchy and light in texture. They are golden brown on the outside. They are tasty and smell fresh and homely. • Include 2 different flavourings They contain sesame seeds and caraway seeds for crunch and a slightly aniseed flavour from the caraway seed. • be suitable for vegetarians They contain no animal products and to ensure that they are also suitable for vegans, I have used vegetable oil rather than margarine or butter. • be attractive to the consumer They are golden brown and the colour makes then attractive. The dough has been slightly twisted before baking to give an interesting effect. 6 marks
Design Idea 2 • Product Name_____________ 6 marks