Cooperative Planning:Building a Sustainable Nuclear Industry Megan Sharrow University of Wisconsin – Madison WISE 2006
An Overview • Why is nuclear power important? • Identifying the steps to sustainability. • How to turn barriers to building blocks. • Summary of recommendations • Q&A
Why is nuclear power important?It’s 20%. Electric power generation by source during 2004 From: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-906, “Power Plant Report.”
Why is nuclear power important?It’s clean & safe. Clean1 • 700 million tons of carbon dioxide • 1.1 million tons of nitrogen oxide • 3.3 million tons of sulfur dioxide Safe2 • 0 deaths due to commercial reactor accidents in the U.S. • 50 total deaths due to international and defense reactor accidents • 500+deaths in coals mines for 2005 alone • 500+deaths in single oil accident in Nigeria, 1998 • 3,500 deaths from 2 dam failures in India, 1979-80 2. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf06app.htm 1. http://www.nei.org/index.asp?catnum=2&catid=346
Why is nuclear power important?It’s reliable. Average Capacity Factors by Source for 2005 Source: http://www.nei.org/documents/U.S._Capacity_Factors_by_Fuel_Type.pdf
Steps to Sustainability • New plants • Maintain 20%, possibly more • Interim waste storage • Consolidation and Preparation (CAP) Facilities • Research and development • Global Nuclear Energy Partnership • Permanent disposal • Yucca Mountain
Barriers to Building Blocks • New plants: Nuclear Power 2010 and 2005 Energy Policy Act • Licensing Combined steps Moderated stalling Indefinite process • Financing Loan guarantees Tax credits Extended risk insurance High capital cost • Infrastructure No domestic International slow Create domestic jobs1 • Construction: 1,300-2000 per plant • Operation: 300-500 per plant www.cleansafeenergy.org
Barriers to Building Blocks 2. Interim storage:On-site to off-site • CO$T: Tax payer vs. Rate payer • Transportation Legitimate concern or unfounded fear?
MythBusters! 120-ton locomotive traveling at 80 miles an hour vs. Transport container on a flatbed trailer Superficial damage Photos from: http://www.nei.org/doc.asp?docid=632
Barriers to Building Blocks 3. Research and development: Collaboration and exploration Time Money Effort Collaboration Leadership Secure energy Global energy Reduce waste = +
Barriers to Building Blocks 4. Permanent disposal: The Nuclear Waste Management and Disposal Act Licensing Financing Infrastructure Indefinite Insufficient Non-existent 2 years + 6 months Nuclear Waste Fund Railroads and offices
Summary of Recommendations • New plants • Nuclear Power 2010 and 2005 Energy Policy Act should continue as scheduled. • Off-site interim storage • CAP facilities should be placed near research sites and Yucca. • Research and development • GNEP should be coordinated amongst domestic and international communities. • Permanent disposal • Yucca Mountain should be expedited through modifying the existing legislation.
Obstacles to Achievement • Untested licensing process • Updated in 1992 • Significant financial risk • Highest capital cost • Lack of infrastructure • No domestic plants constructed for 20 years • International waiting list • New Plants
Obstacles to Achievement • Unfounded transportation concerns 2. Off-SiteInterim Storage • 8 accidents involving casks in U.S.1 • 4 of these involved casks carrying waste • Worst accident: truck rollover in 1971 • Results: no releases of radiation 1. EPRI Technical Report, “Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation,” 2004.
Obstacles to Achievement • Undeveloped mission plan for Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) 3. Research and Development Wants: • Secure, global energy production • Limit spread of advanced technologies • Small-scale reactors to small nations • Reprocessing, enriching in weapon-states Needs: • Partnerships • To share costs • Aid in deployment
Obstacles to Achievement • Unrealistic standards • 1,000,000 year design analysis • Insufficient incentives for completion • Financing and managing • Alternatives temporarily postponed1 • Public opposition • Massive transportation of waste • Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY) • Anti-nuclear desire to stop industry 4. Permanent Disposal 1. Department of Energy Report, “Alternative Means of Financing and Managing the Civilian radioactive Waste Management Program,” August 2001.
Barriers to Building Blocks • Licensing process already begun • Fewer opportunities for stalling • Significant financial securities • Loan guarantees, tax credits • Extended risk insurance • Domestic infrastructure • Create jobs1 • Construction: 1,300-2000 per plant • Operation: 300-500 per plant • Re-establish manufacturing • BXW Technologies Inc.2 • Building New Infrastructure www.cleansafeenergy.org 2. Nucleonics, May 25 2006.
Barriers to Building Blocks • Opportunity to dispel transportation concerns • Build public faith for transport to Yucca Mountain • Strategiclocation of CAP facilities • Deliver candidate fuel to research facilities • Expedite eventual disposal 2. Transporting Waste
Barriers to Building Blocks • Encourage international collaboration • Establish partnerships • Fortify sense of global investment • Support innovation at national labs and universities • Enable scientific pursuits a la Space Race • Ensure U.S. remains among global leaders of nuclear industry 3. Developing a Mission Plan for GNEP
Barriers to Building Blocks • Nuclear Fuel Management and Disposal Act • Numerous provisions • Sets limit on review of “receive and possess” license • Repeals statutory limit on repository • Allows commencement of infrastructure construction • Suggests alternative means of financing • Steps in right direction • Needs closer inspection 4. Expediting Yucca Mountain 1. Department of Energy Report, “Alternative Means of Financing and Managing the Civilian radioactive Waste Management Program,” August 2001.