the Use of History in Literary Criticism. Literary History, New Criticism and New Historicism. Outline. Starting Questions Historical Methods Literary History – another example of traditional historicism New Historicism & Foucault References Next Few Weeks. Questions (1).
Literary History, New Criticism and New Historicism
1. The solid lines indicate supposed empirical methods, and the dotted lines shows inference according normal historical practice. (Berkhofer 141)
synthesized into ‘Story’
or, according to Hayden White,
organized into a chronicle
Story within beginning, middle and end;
Or motifs (inaugural, terminating, transitional)
(e.g. p. 108-109; 111; Neo-Classical poetry, Romantic Poetry, Victorian Novel and Poetry 唐詩、宋詞、元曲、明小說)
Aren’t there exceptions to these generalizations?
e.g. Jane Austin, 19th century ‘poetess’
1. the life of the author;
2. the social rules found within a text;
3. a reflection of a work’s historical situation in the text.
(difficulty: resources not available inTaiwan)
Discourse, Power and Subjectivity
Discursive formation over time --three major procedures:
Definition & Prohibition defining statements & Rules about the “sayable” and “thinkable”
Division and rejection; subject positions; exclusion of other statements
Opposition between false and true Authority/Power of knowledge (Truth)
Discursive practices (material practices) within institutions.Discourse (論述): Definition
The author is not a creator of his own work. He is a ‘label’ put on a group of work by and related to him.
a. Value, b. Coherence,
c. Stylistic unity, d. a historical figure
– both repressive, controlling and productive
-- not just top-down; it circulates, working in multiple direction like “capillary 血管movement.”
-- producing “Truth”– with a discursive formation sustaining a regime of truth.
Main purpose -- not so much the “birth of the prison”as “disciplinary technology”
Or the carceral (監獄的) forms of discipline which exercise over individual a perpetual series of observation and modes of control of conduct.
A circular building with the central control tower control internalized.
(Discourse Power and Subjectivity)