Exam 1 Review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

tessa
exam 1 review n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Exam 1 Review PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Exam 1 Review

play fullscreen
1 / 32
Download Presentation
Exam 1 Review
94 Views
Download Presentation

Exam 1 Review

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Exam 1 Review • Purpose: Identify Themes • Two major sections • Defining Social Psychology and Research Methods • Social Perception

  2. Defining Social Psychology • What is it? • How does it differ from other related fields?

  3. Research Methods • What’s a theory? How is it evaluated • What’s a Hypothesis? • How does applied research differ from basic research? • Conceptual vs. Operational variables? • Correlational Designs • Experimental Designs • How do correlational and experimental research differ?

  4. Research Methods • In Experiments: • Random sampling vs. random assignment • Why is random assignment important? • What is an independent variable? Dependent variable? • Be able to identify and translate conceptual variables to operationalized variables

  5. Theme of this section of course: Social Perception • How do we perceive: • Ourselves? • Other individuals? • Other groups?

  6. First Topic: The Self • Affect: How do we evaluate ourselves, enhance our self-images, and defend against threats to our self-esteem? • Behavior: How do we regulate our actions and present ourselves according to interpersonal demands? • Cognition: How do we come to know ourselves, develop a self-concept, and maintain a stable sense of identity?

  7. The ABCs of the Self • Cognition: Self-concept • Affect: Self-esteem • Behavior: Self-presentation

  8. Self-concept • Define • Cocktail party effect • Self-schemas • Sources of the self-concept

  9. Sources of the Self-Concept • Source 1: Introspection • Does it lead to an accurate self-concept? • Affective forecasting & durability bias • Source 2: Perceptions of our own behavior • Self-perception theory (Bem) • Self-perception of emotion • Intrinsic/Extrinsic motivation • Overjustification effect

  10. Sources of the Self-Concept • Source 3: Other people • Social comparison theory (Festinger) • Two-factor theory of emotion (Schacter) • Source 4: Autobiographical memories • Flashbulb memories • Self-serving distortions of memories (e.g., high school grades) • Source 5: Culture • Individualistic vs. Collectivistic Orientations

  11. Self-esteem • What function does SE serve? • Need for social belonging/acceptance • Terror Management Theory • Influences of Culture • Self-discrepancy theory

  12. Self-esteem • Self-awareness • Public vs. private self-consciousness • Self-regulation • Ironic processes • Trying to inhibit a thought, feeling, or behavior sometimes backfires

  13. Mechanisms of Self-Enhancement • Self-serving cognitions • Misremembering SAT scores • Self-handicapping • BIRGing • Social comparison

  14. Self-presentation • In book, focus on: • Strategic self-presentation strategies; • Self-monitoring • Ingratiation • Self-promotion • Self-verification

  15. Second Topic: Person Perception • Attribution biases • Observation • Confirmation biases

  16. Attribution Theories • Internal/Person Attributions • e.g., personality, ability, attitude • External/Situational Attributions • e.g., other people, luck, pressure,

  17. Attribution Biases and Errors • Kelley’s covariation theory • Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) • FAE and culture • Actor-observer bias • Self-serving attribution bias

  18. Observation • Superficial features • E.g., baby-facedness • Nonverbal behaviors • What functions are served? • Lie detection

  19. Information Integration • Priming • Implicit Personality Theories • Central traits • Primacy

  20. Confirmation Bias • Belief Perseverance – believing discredited information • Hypothesis confirmation bias • Self-fulfilling prophecy

  21. Third Topic: Prejudice • Stereotypes & Prejudice • Intergroup Interactions

  22. How stereotypes form • Ingroups and outgroups • Social categorization • Outgroup homogeneity

  23. How stereotypes survive • Illusory correlations • Attributions • Subtyping and contrast effects • Self-fulfilling prophecy

  24. Automaticity of Stereotypes: Influencing Factors • Amount of exposure to the stereotype. • The kind and amount of information the perceiver encounters. • The perceiver’s motivational goals. • e.g., Protecting one’s self-esteem or self-image.

  25. Overcoming Stereotypes • How much personal information do we have about someone? • What is our cognitive ability to focus on an individual member of a stereotyped group? • What is our motivation level to form an accurate impression of someone? • How motivated are we to avoid applying negative stereotypes?

  26. Prejudice: The emotional component • Competition-based prejudice • Explicit vs. Implicit prejudice

  27. Competition-based prejudice • Realistic conflict theory • Cotton prices and lynchings

  28. Forms of Prejudice • Explicit Attitudes • Ambivalent Sexism • Modern Racism • Implicit Attitudes

  29. Explicit Attitudes Operate at conscious level Best measured by traditional, self-report measures Implicit Attitudes Function in an unconscious & unintentional manner How do we measure??

  30. Implicit Prejudice • Unconscious, unintentional, automatic • How is it measured? • IAT • Bona fide pipeline • fMRI

  31. How Stereotypes Affect their Targets • Stereotype Threat • How does it operate?

  32. Reducing prejudice • Jigsaw Classroom