Exam 1 Review • Purpose: Identify Themes • Two major sections • Defining Social Psychology and Research Methods • Social Perception
Defining Social Psychology • What is it? • How does it differ from other related fields?
Research Methods • What’s a theory? How is it evaluated • What’s a Hypothesis? • How does applied research differ from basic research? • Conceptual vs. Operational variables? • Correlational Designs • Experimental Designs • How do correlational and experimental research differ?
Research Methods • In Experiments: • Random sampling vs. random assignment • Why is random assignment important? • What is an independent variable? Dependent variable? • Be able to identify and translate conceptual variables to operationalized variables
Theme of this section of course: Social Perception • How do we perceive: • Ourselves? • Other individuals? • Other groups?
First Topic: The Self • Affect: How do we evaluate ourselves, enhance our self-images, and defend against threats to our self-esteem? • Behavior: How do we regulate our actions and present ourselves according to interpersonal demands? • Cognition: How do we come to know ourselves, develop a self-concept, and maintain a stable sense of identity?
The ABCs of the Self • Cognition: Self-concept • Affect: Self-esteem • Behavior: Self-presentation
Self-concept • Define • Cocktail party effect • Self-schemas • Sources of the self-concept
Sources of the Self-Concept • Source 1: Introspection • Does it lead to an accurate self-concept? • Affective forecasting & durability bias • Source 2: Perceptions of our own behavior • Self-perception theory (Bem) • Self-perception of emotion • Intrinsic/Extrinsic motivation • Overjustification effect
Sources of the Self-Concept • Source 3: Other people • Social comparison theory (Festinger) • Two-factor theory of emotion (Schacter) • Source 4: Autobiographical memories • Flashbulb memories • Self-serving distortions of memories (e.g., high school grades) • Source 5: Culture • Individualistic vs. Collectivistic Orientations
Self-esteem • What function does SE serve? • Need for social belonging/acceptance • Terror Management Theory • Influences of Culture • Self-discrepancy theory
Self-esteem • Self-awareness • Public vs. private self-consciousness • Self-regulation • Ironic processes • Trying to inhibit a thought, feeling, or behavior sometimes backfires
Mechanisms of Self-Enhancement • Self-serving cognitions • Misremembering SAT scores • Self-handicapping • BIRGing • Social comparison
Self-presentation • In book, focus on: • Strategic self-presentation strategies; • Self-monitoring • Ingratiation • Self-promotion • Self-verification
Second Topic: Person Perception • Attribution biases • Observation • Confirmation biases
Attribution Theories • Internal/Person Attributions • e.g., personality, ability, attitude • External/Situational Attributions • e.g., other people, luck, pressure,
Attribution Biases and Errors • Kelley’s covariation theory • Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) • FAE and culture • Actor-observer bias • Self-serving attribution bias
Observation • Superficial features • E.g., baby-facedness • Nonverbal behaviors • What functions are served? • Lie detection
Information Integration • Priming • Implicit Personality Theories • Central traits • Primacy
Confirmation Bias • Belief Perseverance – believing discredited information • Hypothesis confirmation bias • Self-fulfilling prophecy
Third Topic: Prejudice • Stereotypes & Prejudice • Intergroup Interactions
How stereotypes form • Ingroups and outgroups • Social categorization • Outgroup homogeneity
How stereotypes survive • Illusory correlations • Attributions • Subtyping and contrast effects • Self-fulfilling prophecy
Automaticity of Stereotypes: Influencing Factors • Amount of exposure to the stereotype. • The kind and amount of information the perceiver encounters. • The perceiver’s motivational goals. • e.g., Protecting one’s self-esteem or self-image.
Overcoming Stereotypes • How much personal information do we have about someone? • What is our cognitive ability to focus on an individual member of a stereotyped group? • What is our motivation level to form an accurate impression of someone? • How motivated are we to avoid applying negative stereotypes?
Prejudice: The emotional component • Competition-based prejudice • Explicit vs. Implicit prejudice
Competition-based prejudice • Realistic conflict theory • Cotton prices and lynchings
Forms of Prejudice • Explicit Attitudes • Ambivalent Sexism • Modern Racism • Implicit Attitudes
Explicit Attitudes Operate at conscious level Best measured by traditional, self-report measures Implicit Attitudes Function in an unconscious & unintentional manner How do we measure??
Implicit Prejudice • Unconscious, unintentional, automatic • How is it measured? • IAT • Bona fide pipeline • fMRI
How Stereotypes Affect their Targets • Stereotype Threat • How does it operate?
Reducing prejudice • Jigsaw Classroom