CONTEMPORARYPEACE OPERATIONS Ivan Velimir Starčević, M. A. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the Republic of Croatia Athens , September-October 2009
About the author Ivan Velimir Starčević - Minister Plenipotentiary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the Republic of Croatia - B. A. from the Faculty of Law in Zagreb, M. A. from the same Faculty - Diplomatic assignments abroad : New Delhi, Athens, Belgrade, Sarajevo - Deputy Head for Civilian Affairs at the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in Feyzabad, Badakhshan province, Afghanistan,August 2005- December 2006 On the banks of Amu Darja, NE Afghanistan, August 2006
FACTS ANDFIGURES • Current UN operations: - peacekeeping operations- DPKO = 17 (15+2) - political and peacebuilding operations- DPA = 10 (12-2 administered by DPKO : UNAMA and BINUB) • Since 1948 total of 63UN peace operations, 48 accomplished, 15 ongoing • UN peace operations’ budget for 2008/2009-7.1 bil. USD (about 0.5 % of global military spending - estimated at 1.232 trillion USD) • In UN operations worldwide at the moment over 115.000 personnel (82.000 military, 11.000 police), in all operations including MNF-I and ISAF at the end of 2008 about315.000 (SIPRI) • Total number of ongoing operations over 60 under various lead agencies
DEVELOPMENT OF UN PEACE OPERATIONS • Classical peacekeeping - consent of the parties involved - impartiality - non-use of force except in self-defence • Agenda for Peace,1992 • Brahimi Report, 2000 • Capstone doctrine, 2008 - conflict prevention - peacemaking - peacekeeping - peace enforcement - peacebuilding • New Horizons, July 2009 • New concepts: - sovereignty as responsibility - humanitarian intervention - responsibility to protect - R2P
PEACE OPERATIONS TODAY • Peace operations & crisis management/conflict management • Change of paradigm – mighty states no longer main threat to world security, failing/failed/rogue states instead • Peace operations after 9/11, terrorism, assymetric warfare, war on terror, COIN - exception or rule in the future? • Which level of military activities can be “tolerated” in a peace operation (eg. Iraq, Afghanistan)? • What is the source of legitimacy for a peace operation, is UN mandate required/indispensable? • Basic framework : redefining of the concept of state sovereignty - robust operations - R2P (individual vs. state sovereignty )
DIFFERENTIATION &INTEGRATION • Differentiation (1) Terminology : peace missions – peace operations – peace support operations & complex body of others (2) Intra-agency differentiation (3) Inter-agency differentiation : different lead agencies (UN, EU, AU, NATO, OSCE, OAS, ECOWAS, CIS etc), coalitions of the willing, individual states (4) Paralelism : multiple operations in the same theatre
DIFFERENTIATION &INTEGRATION • Integration (1) macro level : comprehensive approach (integrated approach, whole of government approach, 3D approach) (2) micro level : Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) in Afghanistan and Iraq (3) new conceptual framework?
HOW TO START AN OPERATION? • Conducting peace operation is art rather than science, practical approach looks like a suitable starter • Going to peace operation is like packing your suitcase in a way you did for earlier trips, but - there is no panacea! • Peace operations require sensibility and sophistication, we have to act like old artisans • In 40% of post-conflict countries conflicts are repeated within 10 years (Collier) • Value of preparation, planning for departure from the outset
HOW TO CONDUCT AND END AN OPERATION? • Security, governance, R&D and social services; security is number one • Sequencing (Golden hour) and prioritization, patience and resilience • Dilemmas: how to cut circle of violence? how to build perception/reality of normalcy? how to ensure that progress is native/sustainable? how to unlock local resources and set up working economy ? • Environments - host country, NGOs & GOs, media, home front • Peace operations take long time, it’s time to go home when the recipient state is self-legitimizing • How to measure success? Question of metrics and measurements or . . . ?
HUMAN DIMENSION • Peace operations between nobility and pragmatism (Nobel Peace Prize 1988 vs. privatization of peace operations) • People vs. technology in modern peace operations • High Tech High Touch • Establish set of principles - Modesty - Humility - Cultural understanding - Common sense - Interaction (peace operation is a two-way street) - other
PEACE OPERATIONS IN A POSTMODERN ERA • Differentiation and integration • Decentralization • Multidimensionality • Globalization • Cultural sensibilization • Ethical dimension • Pluralism of actors • Relativism • New challenges (R2P, gender dimension, peace operations & children, peace operations & environment) • Terrorism and peace operations (postmodern war, assymetric war, virtual war, simulation, performance etc.)
ENDThe views expressed in this presentation are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or positions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the Republic of Croatia