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5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples 2001 PowerPoint Presentation
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5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples 2001

5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples 2001

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5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples 2001

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  1. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples 2001 12th - 14th September Image Analysis Lecture 11 Engineering Applications of Soil Micromorphology/ Microfabric Analysis

  2. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Engineering Applications • Quantitative Methods • Examples of Intensity Gradient Analysis • New methods for porosity analysis • Dynamic Studies • Applications to a Palaeosol of coast of Hong Kong

  3. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Intensity Gradient/Orientation Analysis There is evidence to show particles do align perpendicular to principal stress direction. BUT Orientation is far from complete.

  4. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. How does orientation vary within a sample? Over 350 separate estimates of orientation were made on this sample. The location of each image is indicated by the + while the length of the line and direction indicate the degree of anisotropy and the preferred direction respectively. In this sample the microfabric is very uniform These results were obtained with a fully automatic system

  5. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Other samples are less uniform Uniform in places, but shear discontinuities evident

  6. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Microfabric changes on shearing

  7. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

  8. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Detail across a failure zone At the edges of the failure zone, the Index of Anisotropy is less than outside region, but there is a sharp change in angle on either side - suggesting a kink zone failure.

  9. Original Image Binary Version of Restored Image 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. New developments in Porosity Studies Flow of fluids is high influenced by path length Which is shortest path across image?

  10. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Path highlighted is shortest continuous path

  11. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

  12. Binary Version of Restored Image Original Image 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

  13. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Slight differences are apparent if 4-point or 8-point connectivity is assumed

  14. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

  15. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Problem with 8-point connectivity Are voids or particles continuous at these points? No problem with 4-point connectivity

  16. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Dynamic Studies: - deforming soils in SEM Shear Box used in 1973 study

  17. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. VIDEO of dynamic deformation

  18. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. A Study of Hong Kong Marine Soils School of Environmental Sciences

  19. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Simplified Sequence of Deposition During last inter-glacial deposition of unit M2 When sea level fell, surface layer was exposed to desiccation, oxidation, pedogenesis, etc. ~10m M1 In the Holocene, the sea probably covered the area around 6000 - 8000 years ago deposition of unit M1 T1 M2 Press Return to continue

  20. Classification according to Yim (1994)

  21. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Freeze-dried example of recent Marine Soil (0.5m depth) Bintang Bolon The Gambia School of Environmental Sciences

  22. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Open fabric preserved in Hong Kong Holocene deposit School of Environmental Sciences

  23. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Fabric in M1 unit beneath Trial Embankment showing flow patterns around silt sized grains School of Environmental Sciences

  24. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Aggregates of stacks of kaolinite particles showing evidence of cementation: Kwai Chung Container Terminal School of Environmental Sciences

  25. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Deposition of amorphous material at base of M1 unit borehole T8. School of Environmental Sciences

  26. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Schematic showing different changes in fabric from consolidation. School of Environmental Sciences

  27. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Sand grains filling crack in palaeo-desiccated layer School of Environmental Sciences

  28. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Pyrite within Hong Kong Marine Soil School of Environmental Sciences

  29. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Sulphate reducing bacteria and framboid of pyrite in recent marine clay School of Environmental Sciences Bintang Bolon: The Gambia

  30. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Pyrite within a decaying root of mangrove: The pyrite appears to form away from the bacteria School of Environmental Sciences Bintang Bolon: The Gambia

  31. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Pyrite in Chek Lap Kok marine clay also show concentration of nickel. Image analysis shows varying degrees of oxidation within the pyrite.

  32. Small halite crystals (1 - 5 m in size on side of root salt tolerant Mangrove Optical Micrograph showing halite crystal 100 m + in size in desiccation crack 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Formation of halite crytals School of Environmental Sciences

  33. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Optical Micrograph of halite crystal and corresponding trace in BSE image School of Environmental Sciences

  34. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 9: Multi-Spectral Methods Procedure of segmentation is know as Mineral-Segmentation

  35. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 9: Multi-Spectral Methods Index of Anisotropy outside aggregate: 0.229 inside aggregate: 0.374 In both cases the predominant orientation is nearly vertical. Vertical direction in field.

  36. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. The four I’s of Microfabric Analysis • Image acquisition • Image Processing • Image enhancement • Filtering • Image reconstruction • Image Analysis • Quantitative analysis • Interpretation