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Planting the Seed of Nationhood 1815-1855. Why were some events in Canada’s history key in allowing us to become a nation?. Who occupied each colony in Upper and Lower Canada. Lower Canada Population increased from: 250 000 in 1806 to 717 000 in 1841

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Planting the seed of nationhood 1815 1855

Planting the Seed of Nationhood 1815-1855

Why were some events in Canada’s history key in allowing us to become a nation?

Who occupied each colony in upper and lower canada
Who occupied each colony in Upper and Lower Canada

Lower Canada

  • Population increased from: 250 000 in 1806 to 717 000 in 1841

  • Very high Birthrates among French speaking population

  • In addition British and American immigrants settled the eastern townships that had been set aside for English speaking farmers

    Upper Canada

  • Before 1812 loyalists settled upper Canada

  • After 1812 a wave of settlers from great Brittan took their place

  • Population Increased from: 71 000 in 1806 to 432 000 in 1841

  • 1815 the population was 80% American born

  • 1841 almost 50% British immigrants

Upper and lower canada
Upper and Lower Canada

Life in Lower Canada

  • Male ruling society

  • 3 major groups- French Speaking Habitants, French Speaking Professional Men, and English Speaking Merchants

  • The French scared of Adapting to the English way of life

  • Merchants were newcomers of lower Canada

  • Wanted roads, and harbours-paid from government taxes

  • Professional Men well educated, wanted to lead the colonies

  • Saw British as cultural threat formed a party called “ parti canadiens”

3 main groups

  • French Speaking Habitants (Tenant Farmers) – Main Concern: Scarcity of Land, Poverty, Fear of English Speaking new comers

  • English Speaking Merchants (Rich, Powerful) – Main Concern: Infrastructure

  • French Speaking Professional Men (Newest “Group”) – Separate French/ Canadian nation

    Life in Upper Canada

    Daily Life in Upper Canada

  • More fields were cleared in Upper Canada

  • Villages began to grow in places that were not convenient for farmers


  • Developed as a British military for lake Ontario

  • Was the largest and most important town in Upper Canada for many years


  • Queen’s rangers began clearing land to build a fort in 1793

  • In 1834, it was renamed Toronto

Services in the Towns

  • By the 1840’s cities were installing sewer systems

  • In the 1820’s and 1830’s started to establish volunteer fire departments


  • Walking was often the safest and fastest way to get around

  • Unpaved streets in towns were unpaved streets turned to mud

    Louis-Joseph Papineau

  • Strong supporter of the old French order in Lower Canada

  • Served as a officer in the military defending British North America during the war of 1812

  • Elected to be in the legislative assembly of Lower Canada in 1809

  • Leader of Parti Candien

Government of upper and lower canada
Government of Upper and Lower Canada

Government of Lower Canada

  • Established by Constitutional act in 1791

  • Power limited by governors and councils

  • Members of legislative councils were voted in for life

  • English concerns were usually different from French concerns

  • The group which the most power was Chateau Clique

  • Believed that power should be in hands of a few capable people

  • Wanted the Roman Catholic church to stay power

    Government of Upper Canada

  • In 1830 government remained the same as the constitutional act in 1791

  • Two political groups the Torries and the Reformers

  • Appointed Legislative council to Executive council

  • Elected the Legislative Assembly

The unrest in lower canada
The Unrest in Lower Canada

  • French and English speaking merchants wanted different things for lower Canada

  • Merchants wanted to improve roads, canals and harbours

  • Immigration caused problems

  • Chateau Clique was encouraging immigration from great Britain

  • In 1832 and immigrant ship brought a deadly disease, cholera

  • The disease 5500 victims

The armed rebellion in upper and lower canada
The armed Rebellion in Upper and Lower Canada

Lower Canada

  • An armed conflict between lower Canada and the British Colonial, power of that province

  • The political leader was Joseph Papinea

  • The Canadians were ready to fight on November 1837

  • British troops charged and the Rebellions lost

  • The largest battle was held at St. Eustach on December 14, 1837

  • The Rebel leader, Dr. J.Q. Chenier along with rebels died

  • The British robbed and burned their village

    Upper Canada

  • Rebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838

  • After the war of 1812 family compact owned most land “Crown Reserves” and “Protestant Clergy”

  • The lower Canada broke out in autumn 1837 Bond Head sent all British troops to help suppress it

  • Short Fight (less than 30 minutes) the battle finished and the rebel forces retreated

  • 1860’s former rebels compensated by the Canadian government

Family compact
Family Compact

  • Upper Canada has an elite called Family Compact

  • Was a small group of powerful people in the colony of upper Canada

  • Along with friends and supporters were know as Tories

  • Did not want Americans to be part of the government in Upper Canada

  • Defended tradition (The things that had always been done) and opposed change

  • Believed power should be in the hands of a few capable people (themselves)

  • Believed the church of England should be powerful in the colony

  • Were loyal to great Brittan and the British government

  • They had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assembly

  • Most Family Compact members were British immigrants who arrived before the 1800’s

The reformers
The Reformers

What did they oppose?

  • Opposed the power of the Family Compact

  • Wanted changes in government and society of Upper Canada

  • Divided into moderate and radical groups

  • Included some radicals who later became rebels

  • Robert Gurley (1778-1863) arrived in Upper Canada in 1817

  • His plan was to bring poor people to farm in New Britain

  • He sent a questionnaire famers to see hoe their progress was

  • He also asked them to name thing that prevented in their towns

  • He criticized Family Compact

Aftermath of the rebellion
Aftermath of the Rebellion

  • Upper Canada was very short and disorganized

  • London government was concerned about Rebellion

  • Bond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir George Arthur

  • Lord Durham assigned to report grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease them

  • Lord Durham’s report led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the province of Canada in 1840

Lord durham s report
Lord Durham’s Report

Two Major recommendations in his report are:

  • The two colonies should become one called the United Province of Canada

  • The United Colony should have a responsible government

  • The British imperial poers(?) should be sent out in writing. All other legal poer(?)

  • Would be handled by the colonies Executive council and would be advised

  • The governor stayed neutral but signed things by the executive council

  • The executive council was not picked from the government but was chosen by leaders of other groups (legislative assembly) this is called “Responsible government”

  • Members of the executive council would stay in the council if half of the legislative assembly supports them

    Personal Information

  • 1792-1840

  • Arrived in Quebec city as a governor general of British north America in 1838

  • Interested in education the poor

The act of union 1841
The Act of Union (1841)

  • Since the Rebellion wanted a better and responsible government British passed a law called the Act of Union

  • British government acted on one of Lord Durham’s recommendations

  • The act of union joined in Upper and Lower Canada as the united province

  • The two aims of the British were to control the two colonies of Canada into one and give the English people control of the newly named colony and to have a new colony with a responsible government

  • They also established English as the official language of government





  • Copy down the following questions:

    • What was the Act of Union and how did it help to unite the Canadas?

    • Who was Lord Durham? Why is he significant in Canadian History? How did his report help form the identity and culture of Canada?

    • Why was their unrest in Upper and Lower Canada? How did this unrest lead to the Rebellions of 1837-38?

    • What was the government in Upper Canada? What was the government in Lower Canada? Were they similar? Different? How so?

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