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What to call oneself?. The term Lutheran was used by opponents in 1519 – Leipzig Debate. The term Protestant was used by opponents in 1526 – Diet of Speyer.

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what to call oneself
What to call oneself?
  • The term Lutheran was used by opponents in 1519 – Leipzig Debate.
  • The term Protestant was used by opponents in 1526 – Diet of Speyer.
  • Martin Luther always disliked the terms, Lutheran and Protestant, preferring instead to describe proponents of the Reformation with the term "Evangelical," which was derived from a word meaning "Gospel."
  • Why be named after a man or be known for what you are against, not for?
what to do
What to do?
  • Keep in mind…
  • The EVANGELICAL Church has a lot to figure out… Worship, structure, practice, etc.
and then
And then…
  • Brussels, Belgium.
  • On July 1, 1523, Augstinian monks Johann Esch and Henrich Voes were burned at the stake for being supporters of Martin Luther.
  • The brave testimony of the martyrs in the fire gave the Reformation legitimacy as they followed the tradition of the cross and martyrdom of apostles.
luther myth
Luther Myth
  • MYTH - These were friends of Luther.
  • TRUTH - These were monks who were moved by his writings. Contact cannot be verified and can not be inferred from Luther’s writings. In fact, inference from his writings proves the opposite.
new hymnal
New Hymnal
  • As the Wittenberg Reformers were exploring what worship should be, Luther started to write a hymn with the passion that consumed him upon hearing about these martyrs.
luther and worship first hymn
Luther and Worship – First Hymn
  • 1. A new song now shall be begun,Lord, help us raise the bannerOf praise for all the Goad has done,For which we give Him honor.At Brussels in the NetherlandsGod proved himself most truthfulAnd poured his gifts from open handsOn two lads, martyrs youthfulThrough whom He showed His power.
try melody for a mighty fortress
Try melody for “A Mighty Fortress”
  • 2. One was named John, a name to showHe stood in God’s high favor.His brother Henry, well we know,Was salt of truest savor.This world they now have left behindAnd wear bright crowns of glory.These sons of God had fixed the mindUpon the Gospel story,For which they died as martyrs.
luther s first hymn
Luther’s First Hymn
  • 3. From where the Foe in ambush lay,

He sent to have them takenTo force them God’s Word to betrayAnd make their faith be shaken.Louvain sent clever men, who cameIn twisting nets to break them.Hard played they at their crooked game,But from faith could not shake them.God make their tricks look foolish.

would not make it into our hymnal
Would not make it into our hymnal
  • 4. Oh, they sang sweet, and they sang sour,They tried all their devices.The youths stood firmly like a tow’rAnd overcame each crisis.In filled the Foe with raging hateTo know himself defeatedBy these two lads, and he so great.His rage flared high, and heatedHis plan to see them burning.
  • 5. Their cloister-garments off they tore,Took off their consecrations;All this the youths were ready for,They said Amen with patience.They gave to God the Father thanksThat He would them deliverFrom Satan’s scoffing and the pranksThat make men quake and shiverWhen he comes masked and raging.
not based on scripture but current events
Not based on Scripture but current events!!!
  • 6. The God they worshipped granted themA priesthood in Christ’s order.They offered up themselves to HimAnd crossed His kingdom’s borderBy dying to the world outright,With ev’ry falsehood breaking.They came to heave pure and white;All monkery forsaking,They turned away from evil.
it is a hymn that does not reflect scriptural truths of specific text
It is a hymn that does not reflect Scriptural truths of specific text…
  • 7. A paper given them to sign -And carefully they read it -Spelled out their faith in ev’ry lineAs they confessed and said it.Their greatest fault was to be wiseAnd say, “We trust God solely,For human wisdom is all lies,We should distrust it wholly.”This brought them to the burning.
but hymns did relate stories of saints like good king wenceslaus
But hymns did relate stories of saints, like Good King Wenceslaus
  • 8. Then two great fires were set alight,While men amazed did ponderThe sight of youths who showed no fright;Their calm filled men with wonder.They stepped into the flames with song.God’s grace and glory praising.The logic choppers puzzled longBut found this new thing dazingWhich God was here displaying.
good writing meter and song though
Good writing, meter, and song though
  • 9. They now regret their deed of shame,Would like to slough it over;They dare not glory in their blame,But put it under cover.They feel their gnawing infamy,Their friends hear them deplore it.God’s spirit cannot silent be,But on Cain’s guilty foreheadHe marks the blood of Abel.
luther s first hymn16
Luther’s First Hymn
  • 10. The ashed of the lads remainAnd scatter to all places.They rise from roadway, street, and laneTo mark the guilty faces.The Foe had used a bloody handTo keep these voices quiet,But they resist in ev’ry landThe Foe’s rage and defy it.The ashes go on singing.
luther s first hymn17
Luther’s First Hymn
  • 11. And yet men still keep up their liesTo justify the killing;The Foe with falsehood ever triesTo give the guilt clean billing.Since these young martyrs’ holy deathMen still continue tryingTo say, the youths with their last breathRenounced their faith when dyingAnd finally recanted.
great poetry
Great poetry!
  • 12. Let men heap falsehoods all around,Their sure defeat is spawning.We thank our God the Word is found,We stand it its bright dawning.Our summer now is at the door,The winter’s frost has ended,Soft buds the flowers more and more,By our dear Gard’ner tendedUntil He reaps His harvest.
  • http://www.conradaskland.com/blog/2008/11/martin-luther-lyrics-a-new-song-shall-now-be-begun/
temporal authority to what extent it should be obeyed
Temporal Authority: To What Extent it Should Be Obeyed
  • Next great work by Luther.
  • 1523
  • Right hand and Left hand.
  • Right hand vs. Left hand.
  • Luther lays groundwork for what we know as the separation of Church and State.
temporal authority to what extent it should be obeyed20
Temporal Authority: To What Extent it Should Be Obeyed
  • God has ordained the two governments: the spiritual, which by the Holy Spirit under Christ makes Christians and pious people; and the secular, which restrains the unchristian and wicked so that they are obliged to keep the peace outwardly... The laws of worldly government extend no farther than to life and property and what is external upon earth. For over the soul God can and will let no one rule but himself.
temporal authority to what extent it should be obeyed21
Temporal Authority: To What Extent it Should Be Obeyed
  • Therefore, where temporal power presumes to prescribe laws for the soul, it encroaches upon God’s government and only misleads and destroys souls. We desire to make this so clear that every one shall grasp it, and that the princes and bishops may see what fools they are when they seek to coerce the people with their laws and commandments into believing one thing or another.
temporal authority to what extent it should be obeyed22
Temporal Authority: To What Extent it Should Be Obeyed
  • This work had a lot to do with our U.S. Constitution.
  • This was a huge development of the understanding of Church and State in the history of mankind.
catechetical hymnal
Catechetical Hymnal
  • We all believe in one true God,Who created earth and Heaven,The Father, who to us in loveHath the right of children given.He both soul and body feedeth,All we need He doth provide us;He thro’ snares and perils leadeth,Watching that no harm betide us.He careth for us day and night,All things are governed by His might.
catechetical hymnal25
Catechetical Hymnal
  • We all believe in Jesus Christ,His own Son, our Lord, possessingAn equal Godhead, throne, and might,Source of every grace and blessing.Born of Mary, virgin mother,By the power of the Spirit,Made true man, our elder Brother,That the lost might life inherit.Was crucified for sinful menAnd raised by God to life again.
catechetical hymnal26
Catechetical Hymnal
  • We all confess the Holy Ghost,Who sweet grace and comfort givethAnd with the Father and the SonIn eternal glory liveth;Who the Church, His own creation,Keeps in unity of Spirit.Here forgiveness and salvationDaily come thro’ Jesus’ merit.All flesh shall rise, and we shall beIn bliss with God eternally.
from depths of woe i cry to you in 1523 as a hymnic version of psalm 130
“From depths of woe I cry to you”in 1523 as a hymnic version of Psalm 130
  • Luther wanted creeds and psalms sung as hymns, not spoken or as chants!!!!
  • There was also hymnic version of Psalm 51 – Create in me a clean heart, O God.
hymns by luther
Hymns by Luther
  • All Praise to Thee, Eternal God
  • Christ Jesus Lay in Death's Strong Bands
  • Dear Christians, One and All, Rejoice
  • Flung to the Heedless Winds
  • From Depths of Woe I Cry to Thee
  • From Heaven Above
  • If God Had Not Been on Our Side
hymns by luther29
Hymns by Luther
  • In Peace and Joy I Now Depart
  • In the Midst of Earthly Life
  • Isaiah, Mighty Seer, in Days of Old
  • Lord, Keep Us Steadfast in Your Word
  • May God Bestow on Us His Grace
  • May God Bestow on Us His Grace
hymns by luther30
Hymns by Luther
  • A Mighty Fortress
  • O Lord, Look Down from Heaven, Behold
  • O Lord, We Praise Thee
  • Our Father, Thou in Heaven Above
  • Our Father, Thou in Heaven Above
  • Savior of the Nations, Come
  • That Man a Godly Life Might Live
  • Thou Who Art Three in Unity
  • We All Believe in One True God
  • We Now Implore God the Holy Ghost
preface to 1526 hymnal
Preface to 1526 Hymnal
  • Above all things, I most affectionately and for God's sake beseech all, who see or desire to observe this our Order of Divine Service, on no account to make of it a compulsory law, or to ensnare or make captive thereby any man's conscience; but to use it agreeably to Christian liberty at their good pleasure,
tension of freedom with unity
Tension of freedom with unity
  • St. Paul teaches, to endeavour to be of one and the same mind; and, to the best of our power, of like ways and fashion; just as all Christians have one baptism and one sacrament, and no one has a special one given him of God. Still, I do not wish hereby to demand that those who already have a good Order or, by God's grace, can make a better, should let it go, and yield to us. Nor is it my meaning that the whole of Germany should have to adopt forthwith our Wittenberg Order.
wittenberg practice
Wittenberg Practice
  • On Holy Days and Sundays we would have the usual Epistle and Gospel remain, and have three sermons.
luther lets you know how he does it
Luther lets you know how he does it
  • Thus on Monday and Tuesday mornings there should be a lesson in German on the Ten Commandments, the Creed and the Lord's Prayer, on Baptism and the Sacrament; so that on these two days the Catechism may be kept up and grasped in its proper sense. On Wednesday morning a lesson in German, for which is appointed the Gospel of St. Matthew. The day is to be kept specially for this Gospel: for Matthew is a fine evangelist to teach the people by, and he relates Christ's good Sermon on the Mount, and makes much of the practice of love and good works.
luther lets you know how he does it35
Luther lets you know how he does it
  • But the evangelist John, who teaches faith with special force, should also have his own day-Saturday afternoon at Vespers. And so we have two Evangelists in daily use. On Thursday and Friday mornings there are the daily lessons week by week of the Apostolic Epistles and the rest of the New Testament. This makes sufficient provision for lessons and preaching, to set the Word of God going, except it be for lectures in the Universities to the learned.
the order of service to be used by all christians
The Order of Service to be used by all Christians
  • But in the true Mass, among sincere Christians, the altar should not be retained, and the priest should always turn himself towards the people as, without doubt, Christ did at the Last Supper.
the order of service he recommends
The Order of Service he recommends
  • a] At the beginning then we sing a spiritual song or a psalm in German, in primo tono, as follows : Ps. xxxiv. [b] Then Kyrie eleison, to the same tone, but thrice and not nine times. . . . [c] Then the priest reads a Collect…
the order of service he recommends38
The Order of Service he recommends
  • [d] Then the Epistle, in the eighth tone. . . . The Epistle should be sung with the face turned to the people, but the Collect with the face turned to the altar. [e] After the Epistle is sung a German hymn, 'Nun bitten wir den heiligen Geist,' or some other.
  • #768 – Now to God, the Holy Spirit, let us pray
the order of service he recommends39
The Order of Service he recommends
  • [f] Then is read the Gospel in the fifth tone, also with the face turned towards the people. [g] After the Gospel the whole congregation sings the Creed in German, 'Wir glauben all' an einen Gott,' &c.
  • The notes have symbolism.
  • For instance, the Gospels would be chanted in C (pleasing) while the Words of Christ Himself were chanted in F (heightened sense).
the order of service he recommends41
The Order of Service he recommends
  • [h] Then follows the sermon, on the Gospel of the Sunday or Holyday:
the order of service he recommends42
The Order of Service he recommends
  • [i] After the sermon shall follow a public paraphrase of the Lord's Prayer, with an exhortation to those who are minded to come to the Sacrament, in this, or some other better, fashion, as follows: 'Dear friends in Christ, as we are here gathered together, in the name of the Lord, to receive His holy Testament, I exhort you, first, to lift your hearts to God and to say with me 'Our Father' …
the order of service he recommends43
The Order of Service he recommends
  • Next, I exhort you in Christ that with right faith ye take heed to the Testament of Christ: and specially that ye hold fast in your hearts the Word whereby Christ gives us His body and blood for remission of sins; that ye bethink you of, and thank Him for, the infinite love which He has shown us in that through His blood He has redeemed us from God's wrath, from sin, death, and hell: and then take to yourselves outwardly the bread and wine, which is His body and blood, for an assurance and pledge thereof. In such wise will we, in His name and as He commanded in His own Word, handle and use His Testament.'
the order of service he recommends44
The Order of Service he recommends
  • [k] Then the Office and Consecration proceeds, as follows : 'Our Lord Jesus Christ, in the same night'(i Cor. xi. 23 ff). I think that it would be in accordance with the Last Supper if the sacrament were distributed immediately after the consecration of the bread before the blessing of the cup. So say, both Luke and Paul: 'Likewise also the cup after supper. Meanwhile, there might be sung the Sanctus in German or the hymn 'Gott sei gelobet', or the hymn of John Huss, 'Jesus Christus unser Heiland.' And after this should come the consecration of the chalice and its delivery, with the singing of whatever remains of the above-mentioned hymns, or of the Agnus Dei in German.
  • 617 O Lord, We Praise Thee, Bless Thee and Adore The
  • 627 Jesus Christ, our Blessed Savior
the order of service he recommends45
The Order of Service he recommends
  • And for the sake of good order and discipline in going up, not men and women together but the women after the men, men and women should have separate places in different parts of the church. As to private confession, I have already written enough about that: and my opinion may be found in the little prayer-book.
the order of service he recommends46
The Order of Service he recommends
  • [m] The Sanctus in German, 'Jesaia dem Propheten das geschach,' &c. [n] Then follows the Collect : 'We thank thee, Almighty Lord God,' &c. [o] With the Blessing : 'The Lord bless thee and keep thee,' &c. So much for daily Divine Service and for teaching the Word of God, specially with a view to influencing the young and alluring the simple.
  • Roman Catholic confirmation was rejected.
  • Bugenhagen was the first to come up with new type in parish life.
evangelical confirmation
Evangelical Confirmation

John Bugenhagen, wrote in the preface to his Danish edition of the Enchiridion of 1538, “After this confession is made, also the little children of about eight years or less should be admitted to the table of him who says: Suffer the little children to come unto me."

The new Evangelical rite of Confirmation included two main components: Acknowledgement of instruction and examination of communicants prior to partaking in the Lord's Supper. The Apology states, "With us many use the Lord's Supper [willingly and without constraint] every Lord's Day, but after having been first instructed, examined [whether they know and understand anything of the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments], and absolved."

evangelical confirmation52
Evangelical Confirmation

In 1540, John Bugenhagen, introduced a third element: Public confession of one's faith. When he developed the Brandenberg Church Order with the Evangelical rite of Confirmation, he emphasized public confession of the Christian faith with the acknowledgement of catechesis and examination. Luther subscribed to this type of Confirmation with only one stated concern. He believed that the pastor must rightfully refuse to confirm anyone whom he had conscientious concerns (Witzelisch, WA Br., 8, 622, 623).

convergence of talent
Convergence of Talent
  • Bugehagen – Pastor to common man.
  • Jonas – Tongues, Latin linguist.
  • Melancthon – Scholarship.
  • Luther – All around.
war of the peasants
War of the Peasants


Broke out in fanatic influence areas


time of change
Time of Change?
  • Wealthy peasants wanted more rights. They saw the religious rebellion with success as an opportunity to secure their own.
  • They used Thomas Munzer, exiled by Luther, along with ZWICKAU PROPHETS to justify rebellion with physical violence. The wealthy peasants sought to secure new wealth and authority for themselves.
a horrible war with no good resulting
A horrible war with no good resulting
  • The war ends up killing 100,000 – 300,000.
luther sympathized not with violence
Luther sympathized, not with violence
  • Luther sympathised with some of the peasants' grievances, as he showed in his response to the Twelve Articles of the Black Forest in May 1525, but he reminded the aggrieved to obey the temporal authorities.
  • During a tour of Thuringia, he became enraged at the widespread burning of convents, monasteries, bishops’ palaces, and libraries. In Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants, written on his return to Wittenberg, he explained the Gospel teaching on wealth, condemned the violence as the devil's work, and called for the nobles to put down the rebels like mad dogs:
luther writes
Luther writes:
  • Therefore let everyone who can, smite, slay, and stab, secretly or openly, remembering that nothing can be more poisonous, hurtful, or devilish than a rebel ... For baptism does not make men free in body and property, but in soul; and the gospel does not make goods common, except in the case of those who, of their own free will, do what the apostles and disciples did in Acts 4 [:32–37]. They did not demand, as do our insane peasants in their raging, that the goods of others—of Pilate and Herod—should be common, but only their own goods. Our peasants, however, want to make the goods of other men common, and keep their own for themselves. Fine Christians they are! I think there is not a devil left in hell; they have all gone into the peasants. Their raving has gone beyond all measure.
luther comes out swinging
Luther comes out swinging
  • Luther justified his opposition to the rebels on three grounds. First, in choosing PHYSICAL violence over PASSIVE DISSENT or lawful submission to the secular government, they were ignoring Christ's counsel to "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's"; St. Paul had written in his epistle to the Romans 13:1-7 that all authorities are appointed by God and therefore should not be resisted. This reference from the Bible forms the foundation for the doctrine known as the Divine Right of Kings, or, in the German case, the divine right of the princes.
luther comes out swinging61
Luther comes out swinging
  • Second, the violent actions of rebelling, robbing, and plundering placed the peasants "outside the law of God and Empire," so they deserved death in body and soul, if only as those guilty of conspired murder. Lastly, Luther charged the rebels with blasphemy for calling themselves "Christian brethren" and committing their sinful acts under the banner of the Gospel.
luther comes out swinging62
Luther comes out swinging
  • Finally, Luther charged the rebels with blasphemy for calling themselves "Christian brethren" and committing their sinful acts under the banner of the Gospel.
  • History has generally judged Luther as too extreme in his response? Was Luther out of place in talking about urgency for violence to confront needless violence?
who said this why
Who said this? Why?
  • We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering. You ask, what is our policy? I will say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: It is victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be.
luther s graciousness
Luther’s Graciousness
  • Remember Andreas Karlstadt.
luther s graciousness65
Luther’s Graciousness
  • He got caught up in fanaticism of Munzer at this time.
  • When broken down by pressure on fanaticism, Luther had open door for penitent friend and helped start life over on farm near Wittenberg.
  • Love thine enemies into friends again.