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Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer. Chapter 5. Telecom, Wireless & Networks. Fundamentals Media, Devices, and Software Wireless Telecommunications Networks and Distributed Computing. Key Terms. Telecommunications Networking media Analog signal. Digital signal

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telecom wireless networks

Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer

Chapter 5

Telecom, Wireless & Networks


Media, Devices, and Software

Wireless Telecommunications

Networks and Distributed Computing

5 1 fundamentals of telecommunications

Key Terms

  • Telecommunications
  • Networking media
  • Analog signal
  • Digital signal
  • Bandwidth
  • Broadband

5.1 Fundamentals of Telecommunications

  • Telecommunications: The electronic transmission of signals over a medium for communications.

(cables or air)

Sender and Receiver must “speak” the same language.

types of signals

Analog Signal: transmit sound using continuously varying levels of voltage.

  • Digital Signal: transmits data using two discrete states of voltage: high and low
Types of Signals
signal frequency
Signal Frequency
  • Frequency: the speed at which a signal changes from high to low (Figure 5.4)
  • Bandwidth: the range of signal frequencies that can be sent over a given medium at the same time.
    • Often expressed as bits per second
    • Broadband: faster than 200Kbps
5 2 networking media devices and software

Key Terms

  • Twisted pair cable
  • Coaxial cable
  • Fiber-optic cable
  • Radio wave
  • Modem
  • Network adapter
  • Microwave transmission
  • Communications satellite
  • Ethernet

5.2 Networking Media, Devices, and Software

The fundamental components of telecommunications networks

networking media

Twisted Pair Cable

  • Coaxial Cable
  • Fiber Optic Cable
Networking Media

Used for traditional phone lines, twisted pairs of wires in plastic sheathing.

Used for home cable TV, thick copper core wire – faster than twisted pair.

Thin strands of glass are used to send light beams – highest bandwidth cable, most expensive.

  • Radio Waves

Electromagnetic waves transmitted through the air at various frequencies.

radio waves figure 5 7
Radio Waves (Figure 5.7)
  • Radio waves use differing frequencies to carry many types of information:
    • AM & FM Radio
    • Short Wave & CB Radio
    • Television Broadcasts
    • Garage Doors Openers
    • Baby Monitors
    • Cordless Phones
    • Cell Phones
    • Radio Controlled Cars and Airplanes
    • Global Positioning Systems
    • Wireless Computer Networks
    • Microwave Communications


300 GHz

30 GHz

2.9 GHz

Deep space radio communications (2.29-2.3 GHz)

Wi-fi Wireless Networks (2.4 GHz)

Global Positioning System 1.23 and 1.58 GHz

Air traffic Control (960-1,215 MHz)

900-MHz cordless phones

Cell Phones (824-849 MHz)

328.6 MHz

TV CH 7-13 (174-220 MHz)

FM Radio (88-108 MHz)

TV CH 2-6 (54-88 MHz)

Cordless Phones (40-50 MHz)

30 MHz

CB Radio (26.96-27.41 MHz)

3 MHz

AM Radio (535-1700 kHz)


30 kHz

10 kHz

The Radio Spectrum

networking devices
Networking Devices
  • Modem: modulates and demodulates signals from one form to another.
  • Network Adapter: Expansion card, or external device installed on a computing device used to connect to a network.
networking devices1
Networking Devices
  • Network Control Devices:
    • Hub/Switch
      • Controls flow of data between devices on a network
    • Router
      • Routs packets to destinations and connects one network to another
    • Wireless Access Point
      • Allows devices to connect wirelessly to a wired network
microwave communications1
Microwave Communications


Line-of-sight communications

networking software
Networking Software
  • Network administrators are responsible for setting up and maintaining the network.
  • A network operating system coordinates the network components to support telecommunications.
  • Ethernet is the most widely used network standard for private networks.


1) Does 88.9 FM use an analog or digital signal?

2) Does a cell phone use an analog or digital signal?

3)Which type of cable has the highest bandwidth?

5 3 wireless telecommunications technologies

Key Terms

  • Cellular network
  • Cellular carrier
  • Global positioning system
  • Wireless fidelity (wi-fi)
  • WiMAX
  • Bluetooth
  • Radio frequency identification

5.3 Wireless Telecommunications Technologies

cell phone technologies
Cell Phone Technologies
  • A cellular network is a radio network in which a geographic area is divided into cells, with a transmission tower and station at the center of each cell, to support mobile communications.
cell phone technologies1
Cell Phone Technologies
  • A cellular carrier is a company that builds and maintains a cellular network and provides cell phone service to the public.
gsm and cdma
  • Digital networking standards for cell phone networks are GSM and CDMA.
  • GSM is the most popular global standard for mobile phones
  • The CDMA networking standard is predominantly used in the United States where it is in equal competition with GSM.
gsm and cdma1
  • GSM Phones include a subscriber identity module (SIM) for security and convenient data transfer between phones.
cell phone technologies2
Cell Phone Technologies
  • Consumers choose a carrier based on coverage area, handsets available, and services provided – service contracts are typically for two years.
cell phone technologies3
Cell Phone Technologies
  • Learn about Service Plans, Handsets, Features, and Services by clicking the logos below.
cell phone technologies5
Cell Phone Technologies
  • Cell phone accessories provide added features for example…
    • A 2 GB mini SD memory card can provide ample storage digital photos, music, and video files.
    • A Bluetooth headset allows you to interact with your phone without taking it out of your pocket.
  • Car chargers allow you to charge your cell phone from your car power supply.
  • Assorted cases protect cell phones from damage and make them handy to access.
wireless technologies
Wireless Technologies
  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth.

Aircraft Navigation

wireless technologies1
Wireless Technologies
  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth.

Seacraft Autopilot

wireless technologies2
Wireless Technologies
  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth.

Automobile Navigation

wireless technologies3
Wireless Technologies
  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth.

Handheld Navigation

wireless technologies4
Wireless Technologies
  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth.

Child Safety

wirless technologies
Wirless Technologies
  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth.

Emergency Call

wireless technologies5


Wireless Technologies
  • Wireless Fidelity (IEEE 802.11), or Wi-fi, is wireless networking technology that makes use of access points to connect devices to networks.
  • 250-1,000 ft range
  • 802.11b 4.5 Mbps
  • 802.11g 11 Mbps
wireless technologies6
Wireless Technologies
  • WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) is the next generation broadband technology that is both faster and has a longer range than Wi-fi – 31 miles!

Seattle’s Space Needle To Become WiMax Antenna

wireless technologies7
Wireless Technologies
  • Bluetooth is wireless technology that enables a wide variety of digital devices to communicate directly.
  • 33 ft range
  • 1 Mbps
wireless technologies8
Wireless Technologies
  • Infrared (IrDA) technology utilizes infrared rays to send data over a short distance wirelessly.
  • 14 ft range
  • Narrow-angle cone (30o)
  • Line-of-sight
  • 4-16 Mbps
wireless technologies9
Wireless Technologies
  • Radio Frequency ID (RFID) uses tiny transponders in tags that can be attached to merchandise or other objects and read using an RFID receiver or reader for the purpose of identification.
  • Privacy issues hold this technology back from item-level labeling and barcode replacement.



4)What technology is able to display your current location on a map?

5)What is today’s most popular wireless network standard?

5 4 networks and distributed computing

Key Terms

  • Personal Area Network
  • Local Area Network
  • Intranet
  • Virtual Private Network
  • Metropolitan Area Network
  • Wide Area Network

5.4 Networks and Distributed Computing

computer network concepts
Computer Network Concepts
  • Distributed Computing refers to a computing environment that includes multiple remote computers that work together to solve problems and provide services.
      • Database Servers
      • Application Servers
      • File Servers
      • Print Servers
network types
Network Types
  • Personal Area Network (PAN)
    • The wireless interconnection of personal information technology devices within the range of an individual.
    • Mostly associated with Bluetooth technology

network types1

The original PAN was designed by Thomas Zimmerman and allowed users to pass digital electronic information through touch, by transferring information from one person’s device to another’s, running a subtle current through the body.

Network Types
  • Personal Area Network (PAN) – Alternate Definition
    • The human body is used to conduct a minimal electric current to transfer information from one individual’s device to another’s.


Exchange emails through handshakeTWO Japanese telecoms giants have developed technology that turns the human body into a broadband-paced link that allows e-mail addresses to be exchanged through a simple handshake, a report said Monday.The technology, developed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. and its subsidiary NTT DoCoMo Inc., uses the body's conductivity and adds the smarts of a personal digital assistant (PDA), the Nihon Keizai Shimbun said.

A device attached to a PDA can send and receive weak electrical signals through people, with human bodies as communications circuits, the paper said, citing sources close to the companies.

Apparel and handbags have their own conductivity, allowing an electrical connection to a PDA that can remain in one's pocket, the paper said.

In this way, people can exchange e-mail addresses, names and phone numbers while shaking hands, with the data automatically written into both their PDAs, the paper said.

The companies have confirmed in an experiment that data can be transmitted at 10 megabits per second, comparable to the speed of a broadband Internet connection, it said.

The technology could allow data communications through door knobs, switches, desks and chairs, the paper said. It could pave the way to one day being able to pass through railway ticket gates or entering secure buildings with a simple touch. It could also get a computer to start up with the proper settings as soon as the user sat down, the paper said.

Agence France-Presse

See also “Microsoft patents body power”

network types2
Network Types
  • Local Area Network (LAN)
    • Connects computer systems and devices within a common geographic area
local area network

Wirelessaccess point

System Administrator


Local Area Network




network types3
Network Types
  • Intranet
    • A private network that utilizes Internet and Web protocols and software.
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)
    • Uses the Internet to connect an organization’s networks dispersed around the world into one large intranet.
network types4
Network Types
  • A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) connects networks within a city or metropolitan-size area into a larger high-speed network.
network types5


FSU Tallahassee LAN


FSU Panama City LAN

Network Types

Wide Area NetworkConnects LANs between cities, cross country, and around the world using microwave and satellite transmission or telephone lines.

network types6
Network Types
  • A Global Network (International Network) is a WAN that crosses National boundaries.
network types7
Network Types
  • Electronic Data Interchange, or EDI, uses networked systems and follows standards and procedures that allow output from one system to be processed directly as input to other systems, without human participation.
installing home wi fi

Wireless Access Point / Router

To Cable Co.

Cable Modem

Installing Home Wi-fi
  • Requirements
    • High-speed Internet
    • Cable Modem or DSL Modem (provided be ISP)
    • Wireless Access Point/Router
    • Wireless adapters for each device.
    • Additional Access Points as needed.

Wireless home media: