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The Risks and Benefits of Software Engineering with Java †. Prof. Steven A. Demurjian, Sr. Computer Science & Engineering Department The University of Connecticut 371 Fairfield Road, Box U-255 Storrs, CT 06269-2155. [email protected] http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~steve

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the risks and benefits of software engineering with java

The Risks and Benefits of Software Engineering with Java†

Prof. Steven A. Demurjian, Sr.

Computer Science & Engineering Department

The University of Connecticut

371 Fairfield Road, Box U-255

Storrs, CT 06269-2155

[email protected]

http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~steve

http://www.engr.uconn.edu/cse

(860) 486 - 4818

†This work was supported by a contract from the Mitre Corporation.

identifying relevant issues strongest potential risks
Identifying Relevant IssuesStrongest Potential Risks
  • Unclear Standardization - A Political Hot Potato
  • Microsoft and Apple - Partnership’s Impact on Java
  • Security Flaws and Java - A Constant Concern
  • Performance - Will (Has?) HotShot VM Solve Problem?
  • Portability and Look-and-Feel: Has Platform In(De)pendence been Achieved?
identifying relevant issues learning language environments
Identifying Relevant IssuesLearning, Language, Environments
  • Similarity to C/C++/OO - Strong Ties to Core OO Concepts
  • Teaching Perspective - Easy to Learn/Teach/Use
  • Complexity of APIs - Excellent Breadth/Depth
  • Lack of Generics - Reduces Reuse and Slows Productivity
  • IDEs and JavaBeans: Development/Prototyping Environment
slide4
Identifying Relevant IssuesMost Significant Potential Benefits
  • Programming Language Interactions - Cross Compilation, Byte-Code Generators, Translators
  • Client/Server and DOC - CORBA, ORBs, JNI, Legacy/COTS
  • Database/Persistence - Interactions with Relational/OO DBS

ALL THREE INVOLVE ENTERPRISE COMPUTING!!!

assessing risks and benefits
Assessing Risks and Benefits
  • Java is Rapidly Evolving
  • What are the Key Issues that Software Managers and Engineers Must Understand to Successfully Utilize Java?
  • What are the Strongest Potential Risks for Switching to Java?
  • What Capabilities of Java Provide the Strongest Case for the Technology?
  • How Quickly Can Software Professionals Learn Java?
  • What are the Long-Term Benefits of Java?
  • How Can Java Interact with PLs, Legacy, and COTS?
overview of remainder of talk
Overview of Remainder of Talk
  • Explore Risks and Benefits of Java
  • Classified Issues According to:
    • Strongest Potential Risks
    • Learning, Language, and Environments
    • Most Significant Potential Benefits
  • Clearly Identify the Pros, Cons, and Unknowns Associated with Each Risk/Benefit Issue
  • Detail Future Plans Concerning Java
  • Summarize and Questions
potential risk 1 standardization
Potential Risk 1: Standardization
  • Unsettled Issue May Impact on Potential of Java
  • Standardization Needed by Business/Government
  • Sun asked International Standards Organization (ISO) to Declare Java as International Standard
  • However, Sun wanted to Retain Sole Ownership
  • US Delegation Against this Move - Supported by HP, Intel, TI, IEEE, etc.
  • Other Nations (France, Great Britain) Back Sun
  • Final Vote 20-2 in Favor of Sun: November 14, 1997
  • Current Status: Java Standard May be Turned Over to Third Party Independent of Sun
potential risk 1 standardization8
Potential Risk 1: Standardization
  • Without a Single Standard, Companies May Only Support Subsets of Java
  • For Example, Sun Suing Microsoft Claiming that Internet Explorer Omits Vital Parts of Java
  • Does Microsoft’s Version of Java Contain Features/Capabilities not in Sun’s Version?
  • Multiple and Varied Subsets will Destroy Platform Independence
  • Why Should One Switch to Java if Multiple Versions of ‘Same’ Software Maintained for Different Platforms?
  • This is a Significant Con that Must be Monitored!
potential risk 2 microsoft apple
Potential Risk 2: Microsoft/Apple
  • August 1997 Announcement of $150 Million Microsoft Infusion into Apple includes Cooperative Java Work
  • Is Microsoft Attempting to Wrest Control of Java from Sun?
  • Will (Are?) there be Two Java Camps - Sun vs. Microsoft?
  • What is the Potential Downside of Competing Java Camps?
    • Hampering of Standardization
    • Incompatible Versions of Java
    • Frustrated User Community
potential risk 2 microsoft apple10
Potential Risk 2: Microsoft/Apple
  • Con: Competing/Incompatible Java Versions will Significantly and Adversely Reduce its Attractiveness
  • IBM, Sun, and Netscape Announced an Alliance to Cooperate on Java to Counter Microsoft’s Move
  • Striving for Compatibility on All Platforms Including Win95 and NT
  • Pro: Microsoft Move May Force Sun to Change their Standards Position
  • Unknown: Strength and Productivity of Alliances
potential risk 3 security flaws
Potential Risk 3: Security Flaws
  • Announcements in Mainstream Press of Flaws in Netscape or Explorer
  • Flaw in Browser (or Software Application) May Result in a Java Applet Causing Damage During Execution
  • August 1997 Bug in Internet Explorer
  • Permitted an Applet to Open Network Connection to a Server Different from its Origin
  • Violates Java Security Model
  • Bug in Explorer Rather Than Java
potential risk 3 security flaws12
Potential Risk 3: Security Flaws
  • Java across the Internet is Powerful, but there must be Assurances Related to Security!
  • Security Critical and Pervasive Concern
  • Protecting Government Sensitive Data
  • Insuring Consistency of Information in Financial Sector
  • Maintaining Confidentiality of Health Care and Personal Information
  • Con: Must be Tracked for Both Browser Applets and within Java Applications!
potential risk 4 performance
Potential Risk 4: Performance
  • Java has Poor Performance Reputation
  • Execution Speed May Differ Substantially Across Platforms
  • One Solution: Third-Party JVM Customization (Kaffe)
  • Another Solution: Microsoft’s Win95 Java Performs Better than Sun’s Win95 Version of Java
  • Yet Another Solution: Sun’s HotSpot JVM in 1.2 with Just-in-Time Compilation
  • Con: Microsoft’s Own Version is Workable Assuming a Java Standard to Force Completeness!
potential risk 5 portability and look and feel
Potential Risk 5: Portability and Look-and-Feel
  • Performance Problems Related to Portability
  • Is Java Truly Portable?
  • We’ve had Success at Bytecode Level in Porting Same Code from Solaris to Win95 to Linux after Compilation
  • However, at Source Code Level, Case Sensitivity in Unix Files Impact When Moving to/from Win95 (Class Names and File Names Must Match)
  • GUI Differences Across Platforms Yield Look-and-Feel Differences
  • Unknown: Can Platform Independence with Reasonable Performance be Achieved?
potential risk 5 portability and look and feel16
Potential Risk 5: Portability and Look-and-Feel
  • First Experience: CSE230
    • 50+ Students given 41 “.class” Files and 4 “.java” Files with 3 weeks to Learn Java, html, and Modify/Extend Code
    • All But 1 or 2 Finished Project
    • CSE230 Now Java Based
  • Platforms Utilized:
    • “.class/.java” Files Built on Solaris
    • Students Used Solaris, Win95/98/NT, Linux
    • Projects Graded on Solaris
    • Java Release Versions Caused Problems
  • Successful from Learning/Course Perspective
  • Students Indicated High Satisfaction with Project
learning language environment 1 similarity to c c oo
Learning, Language, Environment 1:Similarity to C/C++/OO
  • Non-OO Language Constructs of Java (Statements, Operators, Precedence, Declarations, etc.) Identical or Similar to C++
  • OO Features Class, Inheritance, Exceptions - Strong Syntactic and Semantic Ties to C++
  • Experience at UConn In Learning/Using Java
    • 30 Juniors/Seniors One Semester Significant Team Projects
    • 50 Juniors Modify/Extend Existing Code Individual Project
    • 50 Juniors with Java as CSE230 Language
  • Background of SW Engineering, OO, and C++
  • Pro: Similarity to C++ and Ease of Learning!
learning language environment 1 similarity to c c oo18
Learning, Language, Environment 1:Similarity to C/C++/OO
  • Superiority of Java to C++ from Software-Engineering Practices Perspective
  • Package Construct in Java - No Analog in C++
  • Varied Choices to Control Visibility of Classes within Packages and Between Packages
  • Basic APIs for GUIs, Remote DB Access, Threading, etc., Easily Learned and Used in Semester
  • Con: Complex APIs and Advanced Features More Difficult to Learn and Use
  • Pro: OO of Java More Robust /Versatile than C++
learning language environment 2 teaching perspective
Learning, Language, Environment 2:Teaching Perspective
  • Java has Emerged as an Excellent Teaching Language
    • Platform Independence - Instructor Can Avoid HW/OS Differences
    • ‘Free’ Compilers Across Platforms: Students Use/Download Familiar Platforms!
    • Easy to Learn if Know C++
    • Enforcement of Abstraction and Modularization with Class/Package Paradigms
    • Hiding Allows Controlled Sharing Between Classes with Alternate Visibility Choices
    • Pro: OO Java More Robust /Versatile than C++
learning language environment 2 teaching perspective20
Learning, Language, Environment 2:Teaching Perspective
  • In a University Setting Java is Easily Established on Existing Hardware with Ease and Without Cost
  • Students have Downloaded and Installed Java on Win95, NT, and Linux
  • Availability of Shareware IDEs Provides Powerful Tools that Assist in Effectively Utilizing Java
  • Java APIs Support Breadth of Domains and Applications Including Business, Engineering, GUIs, Embedded Systems, Databases, etc.
  • Pro: Java in Classroom is a Strong Benefit!
learning language environment 3 complexity of apis
Learning, Language, Environment 3:Complexity of APIs
  • Core Language is Simple and Straightforward to Use
  • APIs - Wide Range of Complexity
  • Select APIs Require Sophisticated SW Engineer with Significant Expertise
  • Simple APIs Include: AWT for GUIs
  • Complex APIs Include: Networking, Java Native Interface (JNI)
  • Pro: Simplicity of Language
  • Con: Difficult to Learn and Effectively Use Select APIs
learning language environment 3 complexity of apis breadth depth
Learning, Language, Environment 3:Complexity of APIs: Breadth & Depth
  • Java Targeted for Breadth of Domains
    • Enterprise, Media, and Personal APIs
    • JVM in Consumer Products
    • Embedded, Commerce, Management APIs
  • Breadth of Domains Achieved by Depth of Language
    • Package/API Concept: Easily Extend Capabilities to Emerging Domain or Market Segment
    • APIs are Rich Set of Current/Future Tools
    • Example: Java Card API - Smart Card Technology
  • Pro: Potential to Dominate Programming Arena
learning language environment 4 lack of generics
Learning, Language, Environment 4:Lack of Generics
  • Generics in Programming Languages
    • Ada95 (Generic Packages) and C++ (Templates)
    • Promote Code Reuse and Increase Productivity
  • Java Supports Design-Level Generics
    • Single Interface Implemented by Multiple Classes
    • No Shared Implementation - Hence No Code Reuse
    • No Gain in Productivity - Only Consistent Interface
  • Con: Generics Not Supported - Hence Reuse and Productivity Impaired!
learning language environment 5 ides and javabeans
Learning, Language, Environment 5:IDEs and JavaBeans
  • Proliferation of Commercial and Shareware Interactive Development Environments (IDEs)
    • Microsoft’s Visual J++ /Borland’s Jbuilder
    • Symantec’s Visual Café and Super Mojo
    • ObjectShare’s Parts for Java, etc…
  • Available IDEs with Minimal or No Cost
    • Strong Incentive for Colleges/Universities
    • Business/Government Also Benefits
  • Contrastwith $50,000 Validated Ada83 Compilers
  • Pro: Availability of Inexpensive IDEs Major Benefit that Should Spur/Bolster Java Popularity!
learning language environment 5 ides and javabeans25
Learning, Language, Environment 5:IDEs and JavaBeans
  • JavaBeans Supports Component-Based, Plug-and-Play Design and Development
    • Promote Construction of New Applications by Combining Existing Components (Beans)
    • Allow Non-Experts to Build Significant Applications
  • Visual IDEs for JavaBeans
    • Transition Away from Sequential/File-Based Coding
    • Promote Acceptability of Java
  • Pro: Companies are Making Choices
  • Unknown: Emerging Capability with Much Promise But Largely Unproven!
most significant potential benefits 1 programming language interactions
Most Significant Potential Benefits 1:Programming Language Interactions
  • Automated Language-Level Translation - Source Code
    • Synkronix’s PERC: Cobol to Java Cross Compiler
    • Allows Existing Cobol Code to Be Reused in New Java-Based Applications
    • Minimize Retraining: Cobol Programmers May Not Need Retraining
    • Opens Potential Markets for Java Generated Code
    • Assumes Completeness of Translator
  • Non-Commercial Translators Include JCC (Java to C) and C2J++ (C++ to Java)
most significant potential benefits 1 programming language interactions27
Most Significant Potential Benefits 1:Programming Language Interactions
  • Automated Language-Level Translation - Bytecode
    • Change Compilation of Language from Native Assembly to Java Bytecode
    • JVM Executes Bytecode - Source Code Irrelevant
  • AppletMagic Generates Bytecode from Ada95
    • Fully Translate Ada95 Packages/Types to Java Packages/Classes
    • Allows Direct Use of Java API Packages applet, awt, io, lang, net, and util
    • Unclear if All Ada95 Constructs/Programs are Translatable to Java Bytecode
most significant potential benefi ts 1 programming language interactions
Most Significant Potential Benefits 1:Programming Language Interactions
  • Kawa IDE for Scheme Written in Java
    • Compiles Scheme Programs Directly to Java Bytecodes
    • Translation Nearly Complete from Scheme to Java
    • Defines Java APIs to Support Scheme Types
  • Products Like PERC, AppletMagic, and Kawa Forerunners for Future IDEs that Support C, C++, Pascal, etc., Bytecode Translation
  • Pro: If Source/Bytecode Translation is 100%
  • Con: Otherwise
  • Unknown: Products Still Emerging!
most significant potential benefits 1 programming language interactions29
Most Significant Potential Benefits 1:Programming Language Interactions
  • OS Level Interactions Across Languages
    • Separate Process Per Language with Communication via Pipes, Sockets, etc.
    • Employ Message Passing Paradigm
    • Interprocess Communication Between Programs Written in Same/Different Languages Well-Understood Problem with Known Solutions
  • Alternatively, Attempt to Make Direct Calls from a Program Written in One Language to a Program Written in Another Language
most significant potential benefits 1 programming language interactions30
Most Significant Potential Benefits 1:Programming Language Interactions
  • Java Native Interface (JNI) Bridge Between Java Applications and Native Interface
    • JNI Supports Calls from Java to C/C++
    • Also Supports Calls from C/C++ to Java
    • JNI Trap-Door that Circumvents Platform Indep.
    • JNI Eliminates 100% Portability
    • JNI Requires Significant Skill and Expertise for Correct and Consistent Usage
    • JNI Opens Security Door with Inclusion of Native Code
most significant potential benefits 1 programming language interactions31
Most Significant Potential Benefits 1:Programming Language Interactions
  • Summary of Programming Language Interactions
    • Source Code and Bytecode Translators Offer Potential to Reuse ‘Old’ Code and Minimize Retraining
    • Also Facilitates Upgrade of Existing Applications to Platform Independent Java Framework
    • TwinPeaks, a Beta Product from Sun, Provides Higher Level Abstraction to Integrate Java to C/C++ Applications (Built on Top of JNI)
    • TwinPeaks Facilitates Building of Java Wrappers
most significant potential benefits 2 client server and doc
Most Significant Potential Benefits 2:Client/Server and DOC
  • Distributed Object Computing and Client/Server Paradigm are Norms for Today’s Applications
  • Main Support for Both via Java’s Enterprise API
    • JDBC: Java Clients Interact with Relation DBS
    • RMI: Remote Method Invocations Between Clients and Servers When Both Written in Java
    • Java IDL: Integration with CORBA/ORBs
    • JNDI: Platform Independent Access to Native Naming and Directory Services
    • JNI: Java Native Interface
most significant potential benefits 2 client server and doc33
Most Significant Potential Benefits 2:Client/Server and DOC
  • Enterprise API and JDBC, RMI, Java IDL, JDNI, and JNI Offer Significant Potential for
    • Integration of Legacy and Relational & OO DBs
    • Upgrade of Legacy Applications with Java Wrappers
    • Incorporation of Current and Future COTS
    • Development of New Java Clients and Servers
    • Yields a Common Java Framework
  • Reliance on CORBA and ORBs to Facilitate Next Generation of Integrated and Distributed Applications
most significant potential benefits 2 client server and doc34
Most Significant Potential Benefits 2:Client/Server and DOC
  • Pro: If All Promises of Java/CORBA Achieved!
    • Legacy Applications, Current/Future COTS, Database Applications can be Integrated
    • Cross Platform, Heterogeneous, Distributed Applications with Underlying Java/CORBA
  • Unknown: Technologies Largely Unproven
    • CORBA in Infancy: Must Stabilize and Come Into Widespread Successful Usage
    • Will (Has?) HotShot VM Improve Java’s Performance?
    • Java for DOC Very Immature
    • Up to 5 Years to Assess Technologies
most significant potential benefits 3 database persistence
Most Significant Potential Benefits 3:Database/Persistence
  • Three Forms of Persistence Supported in Java
    • Object Serialization: Flatten Instances to Stream of Bytes that can be Stored in Files or Shipped to Another JVM
    • JDBC: Integration with Relational DBSs
    • Emerging Java Integration with OO DBSs
  • JDBC Integration at Query Language and Embedded Levels
  • OO DBS Integration Provided by OO DBS Vendors
    • ObjectStore
    • Jasmine by CAI
most significant potential benefits 3 database persistence36
Most Significant Potential Benefits 3:Database/Persistence
  • Pro: Various Alternatives have Positive Benefits
    • Object Serialization: Elegant Technique for Storing, Transmitting, and Recovering Instances
    • Integration with Relational and OO DBS Critical to Allow New Java Clients Access to Existing Data
  • Unknown: Two Potential Risks
    • JDBC API is Incomplete: Many Planned and Proposed Features
    • OO DBC Interactions in Infancy: Products Just Beginning to Emerge
pros of java
Pros of Java
  • Pros
    • Java is Free
    • Easy to Teach: Short Learning Curve if Know C++
    • Tighter Language than C++
    • Platform (In)dependence
    • Breadth of Domains and APIs
    • Potential Interactions with other PLs (JNI)
    • Java Linkages to Legacy, COTS, CORBA
    • Relational/OO Database Interoperability
    • Available IDEs, JavaBeans, and Components
    • Promise of All Things to All People
cons of java
Cons of Java
  • Cons
    • Standards Issue Unresolved
    • Performance and Portability Problems
    • Language Continues to Evolve
    • Security Flaws Must be Carefully Tracked
    • Lack of Generics, Multiple Inheritance Impacts on Productivity
    • Advanced APIs are Difficult to Learn and Use
    • Potential Split of Java into Two Competing Camps
    • Automated Language Translation Tools Lacking
    • Promise of All Things to All People
unknowns of java
Unknowns of Java
  • Unknowns
    • Standardization Issue Must be Resolved
    • Performance May Take Time to Improve
    • 100% Platform Independence May Not be Achieved!
    • Client/Server, DOC, Legacy, and COTS Promises are Largely Unproven at this Point in Time
    • Database Interoperability, CORBA Links Must be Fully Explored
    • JavaBeans/Component Based Development in Infancy and Rapidly Changing
    • CAUTION! CAUTION! CAUTION!!!!
the future of java
The Future of Java
  • Future Directions are Fluid and Mutable
  • Java Continues to Rapidly Evolve
  • Ongoing Future Directions
    • JavaOS: Complete OS Around Java
    • Microprocessors: picoJava, microJava, Ultra-Java
    • PersonalJava: Java in Game Consoles, Smart Phones, Remote Controls, Touch Screens, etc.
    • Embedded Java: Java in Mobile Phone, Process Control Network Routers, etc.
    • Java Card: Smart Card Technology - Credit Card Computer to Store Personal, Health Data, etc.
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